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UNIT 2 AOS 3: ADULT HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT

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Casey Hawley

on 12 October 2015

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Transcript of UNIT 2 AOS 3: ADULT HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT

UNIT 2 AOS 3:
adult HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT

HEALTH STATUS OF australian adults
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT
australian adults
UNIT 2
AOS 3 SAC

THURSDAY 23rd OCTOBER (PD. 4)

REVISION

Quizlet
Chapter 10-12 Text questions
Revision Booklet
OUTCOME 2
"Describe and explain factors that affect the health and individual human development of Australia's adults."
Describe characteristics of human development from
early adulthood to late adulthood

Interpret data on
health status

of Australia's adults

Identify
determinants
of health and development and explain impact on adults

Describe a
specific health issue
and draw conclusions on strategies and programs to optimise adult health and development
LIFE EXPECTANCY
Comparing Male and Female Life Expectancy
ADULT MORTALITY RATES
STAGES OF ADULTHOOD
"Longest stage of the human lifespan, starting from 19 years of age and ending at death"
early adulthood
19 years - 40 years
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Using data, identify two trends evident in the graph above
(4 Marks)
What is the leading cause of death for
Males and females aged 35 - 44
(2 Marks)

What is the leading cause of death for males and females aged from 25-64
(2 Marks)
Graph the % prevalence of dementia to compare males and females

Describe dementia
(2 Marks)

Identify two common forms of dementia
(2 Marks)

Who is more likely to suffer from dementia? Explain your reason

(2 Marks)
Identify one similarity and one difference from the table above.
(2 Marks)

PADLET TASK

Describe your determinant and outline how it impacts 2 aspects of
HEALTH
and 2 aspects of
DEVELOPMENT using the PADLET class wall.
national health priority areas
Max height reached
Peak bone mass achieved
Sensory organs at their sharpest
Muscle strength reaches peak
Women bod shape changes to get
ready for childbirth
Attending Uni = gain knowledge for career
Work place inductions = gain skills and knowledge to carry out their job
Good role models at work/home community will foster an individual's self concept
Establishing a careers fosters an indivduals self identity and positive self concept
Forming new relationships at uni/work/lecturers etc will develop communication skills
Finding an intimate partner and learning to live with them requires solid communication skills
Starting a family allows individuals to become independent
middle adulthood
40 years - 65 years
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Bone density is lost
Metabolic rate slows = gain weight
Weaker heart, circulatory system less efficient
Senses decline (E.g. Hearing/eye sight)
Wrinkles appear
Grey hair
Women experience menopause
Men produce less sperm and testosterone
Knowledge still being gained and able to be stored
Improved ability to process information and solve problems improves
Sudoko, crosswords can delay the process of mental deterioration
Often have a good idea of who they are and their values
Successes/failures along the way allows individuals to learn how to cope
Divorce may result in a reduced self concept
Some adults have issues with aging and may have a reduced self concept
Forming new relationships at work etc will develop communication skills
May become a grandparent and develop communication with their grandchild
May find an intimate partner and start a family during this stage
late adulthood
65 years +
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Decline of body systems
Senses decline (E.g. Hearing/eye sight)
Aerobic capacity declines by 60-70%
Physical appearance changes (lose height/muscle tone decreases/fat increases)
Teech deteriorate
More wrinkles (skin loses elasticity)
Prostate gland enlarges
Facial hair grows on women
Information processing declines
Memory may start to decline
Sudoko, crosswords, bingo can delay the process of mental deterioration
Coping with change in routine can impact the ability to cope with emotions
Decline in physical development could result in frustration and loss of self concept
Death of a spouse could cause a lot of emotional grief
Retirement could increase or decrease social contacts
Mobility could reduce social contact and communication
MORBIDITY:
Dementia statistics
MORTALITY
Leading causes of mortality
OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY
Use data to identify two trends in relation to adult overweight/obesity in Australia
(4 Marks)
CVD
What is the relationship between CVD and age
(2 Marks)
biological
Genetics



Body weight
Blood Pressure



Blood Cholesterol
behavioural
Sun Protection


Smoking


Physical Activity
Alcohol/Drugs



Sexual Practices
social
Media


Education


SES
Social Support




Family
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Housing



Access to healthcare

Workplace




Neighbourhood safety
MENTAL HEALTH PREVALENCE
Use data to identify two trends in relation to adult mental health illness prevalence in Australia
(4 Marks)
Use data to identify two trends in relation to adult obesity in Australia
(4 Marks)
TYPE 2 DIABETES PREVALENCE
Be able to
DESCRIBE
one key adulthood health issue and identify 1
DETERMINANT
from each category that increase/decrease the risk of the condition chosen
ADULTHOOD: KEY HEALTH ISSUES
cvd
OBESITY
type 2 diabetes
cancer
mental illness
dementia
Be able to identify
GOVERNMENT, COMMUNITY and

PERSONAL STRATEGIES
to promote health and development of Australian adults in relation to your chosen health issue
TASK: Poster






Select an adult health issue and include the following information in your poster:

1. A description of the issue you have
selected (include diagram if appropriate)

2. Relevant Australian statistics in relation to
Australian adults

3. How the heath issues impacts 2 aspects of
heath an 2 aspects of development

4. Identification of 4 determinants
(1 from each category) relevant to the
key health issue selected, followed
by a description of how each determinant
acts as a positive or negative factor on
the key health issue.

5. Identification of 3 personal strategies a
child could do to prevent the selected
health issue

6. Description of one health promotion
initiative that has been designed to promote
the health and development of adults in
relation to the selected key health issue
Collaborative initiative endorsed by the
Federal Government
and all State and Territory Governments.

Focuses on
diseases and conditions
that have a
major impact
on health of Australians.

The NHPA's represent the disease groups with the largest BOD and potential costs to the Australian community.
Almost all Australians are affected at some stage
45% Aust will experience mental illness personally or indirectly

One of the leading causes of morbidity (YLD - Non Fatal).
13% total BOD 2010 (3rd)

Can be easily treated and prevented.
MENTAL HEALTH
REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

ANXIETY
Feelings of worry or nervousness when faced with a threat, danger or a stressful situation. Can also cause an increased heart rate and shortness of breath.

There are a range of anxiety disorders including:
- Social phobias
- Specific phobias (E.g. claustrophobia)
- Panic disorders
- Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
KEY FEATURES

DEPRESSION
Mental illness that can result in the feeling of sadness and hopelessness, loss of interest in activity and
reduced capacity to function over an

extended period.

Cause of depression is usually as a result of an interaction of determinants…Identify determinants that could possibly lead to depression?
MENTAL HEALTH: KEY FEATURES

“State of wellbeing in which every individual realises his/her potential, can cope with normal stresses, work productively and can make contribution to the community.”

MENTAL ILLNESS
“Disturbance of feelings and thoughts that affects behaviour and functioning.”

E.G Depression/Anxiety/Panic Disorder/Bipolar/Eating Disorder

MENTAL HEALTH OVERVIEW
MENTAL HEALTH DETERMINANTS
MENTAL HEALTH CAMPAIGNS

BIOLOGICAL
Bodyweight:
Obesity could develop if a person eats in reponse to depressive symptoms. Or Depression could result due low self esteem due to large body weight.

Genetic predisposition:
People with mental illness in the family are more likely to develop a mental illness at some stage.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BEHAVIOURAL
Substance abuse: (Alcohol/Smoking/drugs)
Smokers are more likely to have mental health problems

Physical activity
Releases hormones (endorphins) that reduce stress and assist in maintaining mental health
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PHYSICAL ENVIRNMENT
Natural Disasters
Fires/floods/drought could stress and anxiety and reduce mental health

Housing
Living in overcrowded housing can increase risk of psychological distress
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sOCIAL
SES
Low SES increases risk of mental illness as people of low SES generally drink more, smoke more and ave poorer housing

WORK/UNEMPLOYMENT
Work related stress can lead to depressive symptoms. Being unemployed can also lead to stress and anxiety as they may not be able to provide for themselves or their family.
mental health
DIABETES CAMPAIGNS
DIABETES MELLITUS OVERVIEW

“Metabolic chronic condition that results in body not being able to utilise blood glucose correctly. “

Huge impact on the health of Australians and results in a range of disabilities that reduce quality of life, life expectancy and can cause complications with pregnancy.
DIABETES MELLITUS KEY FEATURES

TYPE 1:
Occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, therefore not allowing glucose to travel from the blood to the cells. The ‘missing’ insulin has to be replaced, resulting in life-long daily injections.

TYPE 2:
The pancreas makes insulin, but it does not work as effectively as it should and upsets the balance of glucose in the body.

Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes representing approximately 85-90% of people with diabetes in Australia.

GESTATIONAL:
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs in around 5% of pregnancies and is diagnosed when higher than normal blood glucose levels appear for the first time during pregnancy.

MEASURE UP
LIFE! Taking Action on diabetes
DIABETES DETERMINANTS
DIABETES MELLITUS REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

Recent increase in the number of people with diabetes (Epidemic proportion over 800,000).

3rd most frequently managed condition.

Leading contributor to the BOD. Ranked 6th, contributing to 6.2% of total DALY’s.

Type 2 is projected to be the leading cause of BOD by 2023.

Aboriginal have almost 3 times as high (11% V 4%) when compared with other Australians.

Gestational diabetes occurs in 5% pregnancies.

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco/Excessive alcohol consumption/Dietary behavior/Physical inactivity

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Acess to recreation facilities/Work environment

SOCIAL
Socioeconomic status/Work/Food security/Transport/Early life experiences
BIOLOGICAL
Overweight/Obese/High blood pressure/High cholesterol/Genetic predisposition/Impaired glucose regulation/Age
CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.
NEED TO BE ABLE TO ELABORATE ABOUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DETERMINANTS AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MAY CAUSE AN INCREASED RISK OF THE CONDITION
diabetes mellitus
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH:
REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

3.4 Million Australians suffer from CVD
(2nd cause of BOD)

Leading cause of death
(32%)

CVD kills 1 Australian every 10 Minute.

About 1 stroke occurs every 12 Minutes in Australia.

CVD most expensive disease group in terms of DIRECT health care, 11.2% health system expenditure.

Can be prevented and managed with lifestyle alteration.
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH VIDEOS

CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: OVERVIEW

"Health of the heart and blood vessels"

Environmental and genetic factors contribute to poor cardiovascular health.

Despite many medical advances, CVD’s are still a leading cause of mortality and morbidity.

All CVD’s are caused by atherosclerosis (build up of plaque in blood vessels), which restricts blood flow and hence oxygen to parts of the body
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: KEY FEATURES

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) involves all diseases of the heart and/or blood vessels.

Most common CVD’s in Australia are:
Coronary Heart Disease/Stroke/Hypertension/Peripheral vascular disease

CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH CAMPAIGNS

CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH: DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Body weight/High blood pressure/Genetic predisposition/Gender/Hormones/Age

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco smoking/Excessive alcohol/Insufficient physical activity/Poor nutrition

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Environmental tobacco smoke/Access to recreational facilities/Air pollution/Work environment

SOCIAL
Socioeconomic status/Social exclusion/Unemployment/Food security/Stress/Early life experiences
cARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH
ARTHRITIS/ MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS:
REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

Lead high rates of morbidity (YLD’s)

Account for 5% of the BOD in Australia

More than 3 million people (15%) have some form of arthritis

700,000 Australians have osteoporosis in 2011

18% females and 12% males have arthritis
ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS:
OVERVIEW AND KEY FEATURES

ARTHRITIS
“Inflammation of the joint. Different forms of arthritis are part of a group of disorders called musculoskeletal conditions that affect muscles, bones and joints.”

Associated with considerable pain, discomfort and disability.

Research and give an overview of the focus areas of arthritis and the various musculoskeletal disorders.

Osteoarthritis/Rheumatoid arthritis/Osteoporosis/Juvenile arthritis
ARTHRITIS/ MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS CAMPAIGNS
ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Body weight/Sex (Females)/Age/Genetics

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco/Alcohol intake/Physical activity/Diet/Lack of sun exposure

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Access to recreational facilities/work environment

SOCIAL
Food security/Socioeconomic status
ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS
RESEARCH:
Warm water waves program
DEMENTIA
DEMENTIA OVERVIEW...

“Dementia  is not a single specific condition. Rather, it is an umbrella term that describes over 100 conditions that are characterised by progressive and irreversible loss brain function. Dementia will interfere with language, memory, perception, personality and cognitive skills. “
DEMENTIA KEY FEATURES...

ALZHEIMER DISEASE
Most common form. Occurs as a result of a build up of proteins both in and around the brains. Results in memory loss, reduction in ability to think, express emotions.

VASCULAR DEMENTIA
Occurs as a result of reduced blood flow to the brain, due to a stroke or series of strokes. Results in problems with attention, spatial awareness, planning, reasoning and judgment.

DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES
Caused by spherical proteins known as lewy bodies and cause the degeneration and death of nerve cells. Very similar symptoms to alzheimers.

FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA
Progressive damage to two specific parts of the brain (Frontal/Temperol). Can result in displaying inappropriate behaviours and language issues

REASONS FOR SELECTION...

Approximately 321,600 Australians had dementia in 2011,

Due to ageing population, the number of people with dementia will
reach almost 400,000 by 2020, and around 900,000 by 2050.

Estimates suggest that, in 2011, there were at least 200,000 informal carers of people with dementia living in the community, and many of these were providing 40 or more hours of care per week.

Dementia was the third leading cause of death in 2010, with an
average of 25 people dying from dementia every day.
DEMENTIA DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL

Age/Sex/Genetic predisposition/Blood Presure/Body weight

BEHAVIOURAL
Tobacco Use/Physical Inactivity/Alcohol/Food intake
DEMENTIA DETERMINANTS

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Environmental tobacco smoke/Access to recreational facilities/air quality/work environment

SOCIAL
Level of education/Social exclusion
DEMENTIA CAMPAIGN
Your Brain matters
OBESITY
OBESITY: OVERVIEW AND KEY FEATURES

“Condition of excess body weight in the form of fat“ and is the term used to describe the condition of a person whose BMI is greater than 30 or waist measurement of more than 89cm in women and 102cm in men."

CALCULATING YOUR BMI
BMI = Weight (kg)/m2

BMI of 25 – 30 often defined as being overweight.
OBESITY: REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION
3 Million Australians are obese and 7 million overweight

Responsible for 7.5% of total BOD in 2003

Current trends continue 1/3 adults will be obese by 2025.

Cost is significant to the Australian Community

Risk factor for many chronic conditions such as CVD, osteoarthritis, cancers, depression and type 2 diabetes

Can be a condition that could be prevented
OBESITY DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Age: metabolism slows, Genetics, Hormonal disturbance

BEHAVIOURAL
Excessive alcohol, Insufficient physical activity, Poor nutrition (energy dense diet)

PHYSICAL
Access to recreation facilities, work environment

SOCIAL
Socioeconomic status (SES), Food security, Stress,
Early life experiences
CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.

OBESITY CAMPAIGNS
CANCER CONTROL
INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL
INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL: OVERVIEW

“The adverse affects on the human body that may result from a range of different events.”

May be accidental (falls, poisoning, drowning, car crashes) or intentional (suicide, attempted suicide, violence)

Significant cause of preventable illness, disability, and premature death.
INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL: REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION
Responsible for about
7% of BOD in 2010

Almost
6.2% of all deaths
in Australia 2010 were injury related

Main cause of death for people under 45

All injuries are considered to be preventable

Injuries incur significant direct, indirect & intangible costs

INJURY PREVENTION AND CONTROL DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Body shape/Sex/Age

BEHAVIOURAL
Drug use/Alcohol use/Physical activity/Risk taking behaviour

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Work environment/Housing/Access to recreaation facilities

SOCIAL
Work/Housing/Transport

BE ABLE TO ELABORATE HOW 1 DETERMINANT FROM EACH CATEGORY COULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE CONDITION
CHOOSE 1 PROGRAM AND BE ABLE TO BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM AND HOW IT IS ADVERTISING ITS MESSAGE.
INJURY PREVENTION & CONTROL CAMPAIGNS

CANCER
“Disease in which cells multiply uncontrollably and damage tissues all throughout the body.”

Different cancers grow and spread in different ways and at different rates to form tumours.

There are exceptions such as leukaemia (cancer of the blood and bone marrow).

CANCER CONTROL: OVERVIEW
CANCER CONTROL KEY FEATURES
Breast, Cervical, Colorectal, Lung, Melanoma, Non-melanoma, Non Hodgkin's lymphoma, Prostate cance
r

Eight cancers have been identified as priority cancers.
CANCER CONTROL: REASONS FOR NHPA SELECTION

Largest contributor to Australian BOD

Major health impact on the Australian community due to high morbidity, mortality and health care costs.

Screening and early detection can improve the management of and in some cases recovery

There has been improvements in early detection, treatment and survival, however overall incidence is still high
CANCER CONTROL DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL
Obesity, Sex, Age, Genetic predisposition

BEHAVIOURAL
Drug use, Alcohol use, Diet, Exposure to sun

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Work/Air quality/Climate/Environmental tobacco smoke

SOCIAL
Food security, SES, Stress, Access to healthcare

BE ABLE TO ELABORATE HOW 1 DETERMINANT FROM EACH CATEGORY COULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE CONDITION
NO TAN IS WORTH DYING FOR
CANCER CAMPAIGNS
DATA ANALYSIS TASK
Full transcript