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Éducation, Inventions and science in the médiéval Society

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Mehak Dogra

on 9 May 2014

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Transcript of Éducation, Inventions and science in the médiéval Society

Education, Inventions and science in the mEdiEval Society
Education developed and flourished remarkably.
Significance of Education
#1

Village schools opened in
13th Century
Significance of Education
#2

Education for girls was

ignorned
:(
Significance of Education
#3

Latin considered the language for
educated
people
Impact of Education on Society
#1
Universities were established
Increase in number of people being able to read and write.
Parents paid
expen$ive
school fees
Poor
families
struggled
to pay
Bishops
and
Monks
educated children of
upper class
while education for
serfs
and their kids was

rare
Knights
were looked down upon if they could not
read
and
write
Daughters of the

rich
and
powerful
attended lessons
Instead, most girls would
sew
and
cook
Clean
house and do
household
jobs with
mother
Children
studied Latin
at school
'Book' was not introduced in English language and were referred to as
manuscripts
.
Written on
parchments
made of
animal skin.
Noble kids played
instrument
, some boys learned to
write music
Instruments learned were

lute
,
flute

&
harp
.
Universities deveolped during this time as
increased urbanisation

required more written laws such as
Roman Law.
LUTE
FLUTE
HARP
A Medieval Class
Oxford University in England- established in 12th Century
Positive
Impact
Renaissance of
art
&
literature

Leonardo da Vinci known as "
Renaissance Man
" or "
polymath
". Said "
Eye is the Window of the Soul
"
Impact of Education on Society
#2
Martin Luther's (Father of Protestantism) book, "
95 Theses
" exposed abuses of church by the clergy.
Nicolaus Copernicus's book proved that
Earth
is
not
in the
middle
of the universe
How has education changed within a period of time?
#1
Art
,
science
,
music
,
mechanics
,
architecture
&
arts
of
war
and
philosophy
Mona Lisa
The Last Supper
Influence of Church became
weak
, poeple to
express
their beliefs in new way
Caused
religious
and
political
conflict
Early
Middle Ages,
High
Middle Ages and
Late
Middle Ages (because "middle" Middle Ages wouldn't make sense).
Early Middle Ages
lacked
literacy resulted in
collapse
of Roman Civilization
Constantinople, wealthier classes were educated and could at least
read
and
write
Spain, societies produced impressive
philosophical
and
scientific discoveries
Celtic Britain, kept
knowledge of Rome
alive
Early Middle Ages
Educational System changed due to influence of
mini-Renaissance
Gothic
Architecture developed
Number of universities
established
, education became more
affordable
Banking developed because Templars needed a requirement of
literacy
and
numbering
systems
Spread the
decimal system
in the late 12th century with the book,
Liber Abici
high Middle Ages

How has education changed within a period of time?
#3
How has education changed within a period of time?
#2
New Schools taught
arithmetic
use of Arabic numbers,
reading
,
writing
and other subjects
The
nobility
,
clergy
,
doctors
,
merchants
,
navigators
and
lawyers
were required to be able to read
Towards the end of the Middle Ages, even
ordinary
people could read!
Due to
increase

in number of universities
Universities
spread knowledge
and popularised education in Middle class
Late Middle Ages
Science & inventions
We use many medieval inventions in our daily life
Have been improved for multiple use efficiency and durability
Five categories of inventions
Education
Weaponry and war
related Inventions
The Long bow- Released
10-12 arrows
per minute
The Crossbow- Applied engineering to
short bow
Chain mail- Provided
protection
against
being cut
by the enemy
Armour- Protection from
deadly
weapons
Gunpowder- Led to invention of
canon
Nautical Inventions
Astrolabes- Calculating
latitudes
Cross staffs- Measure
angle of Sun
Sundial-
Time keeping
instrument
Compass- Enabled Renaissance explorers to
find
their
bearing
in fog
Farming Inventions
Mills- Built to pump
water
, grind
grain
and crush
ore
Wind mills- harnessed
wind power
Wheel barrow- Allowed
faster movement

with
heavier loads
Horse Collar-
Increased farming
efficiency
Time Keeping Inventions
Clock- Provided a
closer structure
of daily life
Hour glass-
Time keeping
instrument
Quadrants-
Measuring
and
Time keeping
instrument
Nocturnals-
Measuring
and
Timekeeping
instrument
Minute Glass-
Time keeping
instruments
General Inventions
Spectacles- Major
Medical advancement
Paper- Introduced in
1200's
Silk-
Changed clothing
in Middle Ages
Siege Weapons- Brought from
crusades
Impact of Inventions on Society
#1
Changes to agriculture,
increased produce
, made it possible to feed a larger population
Horse collar was introduced in Early Middle Ages, made it possible for horses to
pull heavier loads
Heavy plough
was introduced, it increased crop yields
The invention of horse shoe also helped with this
Impact of Inventions on Society
#2
Printing press had
massive effect
on European Civilization
Books were printed in Latin, but after the invention of printing press, books were published in many
different languages
People such as Martin Luther asked
"Why Church services were not conducted in a language that all members of society, regardless of their level of wealth and education could understand it."
More of a materialistic nature were printed with philosophical results in science
Impact of Inventions on Society
#3
Very beneficial for scientists working on same problem in
different parts
of Europe
Results could be
printed
and
shared
with fellow scientists
Printing press helped bring
Renaissance
in Europe
Impact of Inventions on Society
#4
England had won most of it's battles such as the
Battle of Poitiers
(July 1356)
Edward, the Black Prince won the battle and
captured
John II, King of France
England won because the English army were using
Longbows
and
guns
The arrows were capable of
piercing through
armour
Canons were filled with

gunpowder
which could
destroy
castle walls
Impact of Inventions on Society
#5
Improvement of
naval techniques
allowed Europeans to
travel further
afield, to India and, ultimately, to the Americas.

In 1497, Vasco da Gama a Portuguese explorer
sailed

directly
from Europe to India.
Gutenberg stated
“It is a press, certainly, but a press from which shall flow in inexhaustible streams...Through it, God will spread His Word. A spring of truth shall flow from it: like a new star it shall scatter the darkness of ignorance, and cause a light heretofore unknown to shine amongst men”.
Chainmail
Cross bow
Armour
Long bow
Astrolabe
Compass
Cross staff
Sundial
Wheel barrow
Horse collar
Mill
Wind mill
Hourglass
Quadrants
Nocturnals
Paper
Spectacles
Silk
King Edward
King John II
Clock

How have inventions changed within a given period of time? #1

In the 15th, a device based on screw presses, when partnered with inked movable type heads, allowed paper to be pressed with letters.
Earl Stanhope created printing press with a cast-iron frame. Invented the Stanhope in 1800 which was the first book press made completely made out of cast-iron.
In the late 18th century inventors started modifying the printing press parts by making parts out of metal instead of wood.
Printing Press
How have inventions changed within a given period of time? #2
Printing Press
Until the nineteenth century (1800’s), printers completed each step of printing by hand
Steam engines and electrical engines were combined into the designs of the printing presses.
As technology evolved, so did ways of printing
Today, printing is mostly done by computers, and modern printing devices can print at a much faster rate than those that were used in the past.
More printing is done in one second today than it was in the 15th and 16th century
How have inventions changed within a given period of time? #3
Astrolabe
One rotation of astrolabe plate represented the passing of one day, allowed sailors to approximate the time, direction in which they were sailing, and the number of days passed.
Replaced by "sextant" in 18th century
Sextant measured celestial objects in relation to the horizon, as opposed to measuring them in relation to the instrument.
Explorers were now able to find the sun at noon and determine their latitude.
How have inventions changed within a given period of time? #5
Italian monks are the first to have made the first actual eyeglasses around 13th century, using magnifying lenses made glasses, crystals, bone and leather.
First glasses were held in front of eyes or balanced on nose which often resulted in them breaking
Spectacles
Bifocals were first invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1784
Eyeglasses were made by hand in the 1700's
How have inventions changed within a given period of time? #6
Eyeglasses became popular toward the end of the 19th century as more people began to wear them.
A new, inexpensive style of eyeglasses was the pince-nez. In French it means “pinch nose” . Pince-nez have no temples and would fit on the bridge of the nose.
Could be uncomfortable and often broke if it fell off the nose.
Made popular by political figures such as U.S. Presidents Teddy Roosevelt and Calvin Coolidge who often wore them.
Spectacles
In the 1930s sunglasses became popular for the first time.
How have inventions changed
within a given time period? #6
Spectacles
Colored lenses were available early in spectacle manufacturing
In 1913, Sir William Crookes of England invented a lens capable of absorbing both ultraviolet and infrared light
How have inventions changed
within a given period of time? #4
Spectacles
Roman Emperor Nero viewed fights of gladiators through a natural magnifier made out of an emerald.
Magnifying properties of natural lenses, mirrors and water were known by Ancient Civilizations.
Most ancient lenses were convex shaped. They were used to focus light rays onto a close surface such as a wax tablet used for writing.
The lenses were heavy and they produced blurry images. The problem was fixed in 1730 by Chester More Hall who used two glass lenses together
How have inventions changed within a given period of time? #5
SPECTACLES

Eyeglasses were considered evidence of old age in the 1800’s
People, especially women preferred to wear eyeglasses only when they were needed.
Use of hand-held designs such as the lorgnette to avoid having glasses on their faces.


http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medieval_education.htm

Chris Trueman. Medieval Education. (Unknown) <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medieval_education.htm> 20th April 2014


http://www.medieval-life.net/education.htm

Unknown. Medieval Education. (Unknown)
< http://www.medieval-life.net/education.htm> 16th April 2014


http://www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/education-in-the-middle-ages.html

Simon Newman. Education in the Middle Ages. (Unknown) <http://www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/education-in-the-middle-ages.html> 19th April 2014


http://www.google.com/imghp
Unknown. Google Images. (Uknown) <http://www.google.com/imghp> 24th April 2014

Education

http://www.lordsandladies.org/inventions-in-the-middle-ages.htm
Unknown. Inventions in the Middle Ages. (Unknown) <http://www.lordsandladies.org/inventions-in-the-middle-ages.htm > 14th April 2014


http://www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/inventions-in-the-middlcchtml
Uknown. Middle Age Inventions. (Unknown) <http://www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/inventions-in-the-middlcchtml> 11th April 2014


http://www.museumofvision.org/exhibitions/? key=44&subkey=4&relkey=35
Unknown. Timeline of Glasses. (Uknown) <http://ww.museumofvision.org/exhibitions/?key=44&subkey=4&relkey=35> 17th April 2014


http://www.google.com/imghp
Unknown. Google Images. (Uknown) <http://www.google.com/imghp> 24th April 2014

Science and Inventions
Trig lane spectacles ( a type of Rivet spectacles believed to be made around 1440) were discovered by Gustav Milne.
Scissor spectacles were made in Germany around 1750.
Modern gla
Modern spectacles are made of fibre glass which is unbreakable, scratch resistance and light weighted.

BY MEhak dogra
Year 8
2014


Quiz :P
1. Who is Martin Luther also known as?
Father of Protastinism
2. Name the manuscript of Fibonacci
Liber Abici
3. Who invented the printing press?
Johannes Gutenberg
4. Which Emperor first viewed the gladiator fight through a natural glass?
Emperor Nero
Chirstopher Columbus discovered new world of America in 1492
Michaelangelo
made famous three dimensional painting on the ceilings of
Sistine chapel
in Vatican
Vesalius known as "father of human anatomy" published a book in 1543 explaining human body
The famous dramatist,
William Shakespeare
was also born
Full transcript