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Total Quality Management: Employee Involvement

TQM Chapter 6: Employee Involvement
by

Yani Villaroman

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Total Quality Management: Employee Involvement

CHAPTER 6 Employee Involvement Employee Involvement MOTIVATION THEORIES OF INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL TEAMWORK TRAINING
AND
MENTORING What is Empowerment? Motivation
Teamwork
Training and Mentoring
Recognition and Rewards
Feedback and Performance appraisal
Empowerment Theory X
Theory Y
Theory Z
Herzberg’s Theory Empowerment and ownership are synonymous. Empowerment of employees is one of the latest management techniques deployed to result in continuous improvement in the organizations. REPORTERS:
Cruz, Annielette
Dela Cruz, Argielyn
Mempin, Regine
Villaroman, Yanika “I rate enthusiasm even above professional skill.”

–Sir Edward Appleton Figure 6.1: Behavior of Employees EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
Group Behavior THEORY X THEORY Y THEORY X vs. THEORY Y THEORY X vs. THEORY Y THEORY Z HERZBERG'S THEORY Teams are made to do more work, which individuals can’t. Why Teams? At times, one may find that the team members are incompatible and it is difficult for them to work together. Therefore, every effort should be made to put together compatible persons as a team. Teamwork is not a Natural Human Function It is the responsibility of the management to foster teamwork amongst employees. It requires clear definition of the following: Management’s Role in Enabling Teamwork Responsibility
Authority
Wherewithal for accomplishing the task
Criteria of measurement of the work output. To summarize, the team can have the following benefits if they work for a win-win situation: Teamwork Results in a Win-win Situation Achieve dramatic results, which individuals can't
Make the best use of skills of each member of the team
Make right decisions
Get more enjoyment and job satisfaction The problems of win-lose are summarized below: Teamwork Results in a Win-win Situation Wastes time
Creates conflict
Stops people from listening
Spoils happiness and health of team members There is a lot of discussions in management circles as to why only the Japanese can practice teamwork and not the other management of the world.

Teamwork is possible in Japan, as there is no diversity among employees. CAN THE JAPANESE SUCCESS BE REPEATED? It is believed by some that rewards and awards break teamwork. However this is not quite true. On the contrary, rewards encourage people to practice teamwork.

It is to be noted that awards should be given to teams rather than individuals whenever possible. DO REWARDS DISRUPT TEAMWORK? EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION What makes the difference between the ancient human race and the modern human being, is the art of communications. Therefore, the communications should be proper, appropriate and pleasant.
In every organization, communication is a three-way process for each employee, as given below:

To one, employee id working for—supervisors/managers
To the persons working for him—subordinates/junior employees
To the persons one works with, the peers, counterparts, customers and suppliers (both internal and external) COMMUNICATION IS A THREE WAY PROCESS NECESSITY FOR COMMUNICATING UPWARDS
-Upward communication means communicating with the seniors.

COMMUNICATION WITH JUNIORS
-the junior employee will not have the same education, experience or expertise as that of the senior. Therefore, the senior has to communicate with the junior patiently and in detail.

COMMUNICATION WITH PEERS
-the suppliers should be told about the requirements. Similarly, the suppliers should give information to the customer about the product or service delivered.

MANAGEMENT SHOULD DEVISE WAYS FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
-Communication is a never-ending process. The management should be a catalyst for effective communication across the organization. Feedback session is a corrective action of the system to use the terminology of ISO 9000. WATCH EFFECT OF FEEDBACK Some employees who are doing extremely well also need feedback.
The feedback will be never ending for any supervisory persons, since the system will try to drift away from the set goals often and the management will be required to correct system through the feedback mechanism. CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK A suitable performance evaluation form has to be designed by each organization. Performance appraisal is to be used for the development of employees. Deming does not use periodic performance appraisal. Promotion
Granting of additional employees
Training the employees
Reallocation of duties, etc. Such reports should be used by the management, for various purposes as: Empowerment of employees is not without bounds or limitations.
It should be structured and planned to achieve the corporate goals in TQM way. Empowerment is not without bounds A team employees will be empowered not the individuals.
Even when an individual is empowered, it is done so in his capacity as the coordinator of the team. Empowerment teams, not individuals Agree on what they will produce or carry out.
Decide how to organize the team.
Decide on the responsibility within the team.
Decide on flow of work.
Audit the process.
Decide on improvements and restart. Steps Involved Empowering: One of the fundamental requirement before embarking on forming self- managing team, is training of all the employees in the team till they are perfect.
The employees should be trained in understanding corporate goals and their role in achieving them. Training Needed before Empowerment Empowerment does not mean that the management has no responsibility. In fact the management has more responsibilities. Fundamental Requirements of Management for
Successful Empowerment 1. Accept that teamwork is more beneficial than hierarchical management.
2. Invest time and money on the team building and training before empowerment.
3. Formulate a clear – cut, unambiguous vision and mission statement and the system for quality.
4. Be prepared to spend more time at the initial stages and later on to listen to the problems of the team members. The top management should take the following actions to practice empowerment: 5. Prepare to wait patiently for the success of the empowered teams.
6. Prepare to equip the teams with facts and trust them.
7. Provide support and tools whenever required for problem solving
8. Reward worthy teams.
9. Provide communications infrastructure and Information Technology Infrastructure for the teams to carry on the tasks, without difficulty. The team members should realize that the management may withdraw the delegated authority, if the teams do not shoe results. There will always be individuals who would not be willing to work as part of the team. Responsibilities of the Team Members Empowerment and ownership should provide a viable for establishing flat organization. In flat organizations, more than 20 persons may report to a person. Empowerment and Flat Organization Difficulty of Supervisor and Team Members in New roles
Supervisor Resistance
Misalignment Barriers to Success THANK YOU!!! =) The employees in their formal education learn many techniques covering wide range of topics, from basic principles to advanced topics. It is responsibility of the educational institutions to develop the overall personality of the students, so that he or she gets a broad understanding of wide variety of subjects. Necessity for Orientation Training Objectives of the organization
Requirements and expectations from his team with reference to the organization’s objectives
His role
His responsibilities
His authority
The know-how and know-why of the jobs to be undertaken on day-to-day basis
Familiarity and skill in operating the tools or machinery connected with the job in hand. The orientation training should help the employees
to understand the following: A fresh employee can be easily moulded as per the organization’s goals and objectives since they are fresh and have no biases due to prior experience. But, an experienced person will definitely bring with him different ideas and work from the organizations where he served earlier. Experience Recruits Need More Orientation Excessive workload in the organization, which does not permit sending them for training.
Non-availability of appropriate training courses.
Fear of migration of employees after training. There is a reluctance on the part of management to send employees for training, due to some of the following reasons: The training programs discussed so far are formal in nature. The employees are freed from normal work and are deputed for undergoing training. The employees have to be continuously coached on the job to understand the organization’s policies, objectives and goals. Mentoring Like continuous improvement, feedback should also be given continuously. Some employees who are doing extremely well also need feedback. The feedback will be never ending for any of the supervisory persons, since the system will try to drift away from the set goals often and the management will be required to correct the system through the feedback mechanism. Continuous Feedback
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