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Vera Alexandra

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Halogenoalkanes

Vera Alexandra Zahorka Halogenoalkanes General Formula: CnH2n+1X
where X is a halogen atom (F, Cl, Br, or I) The classification
of Halogenoalkane They are named by prefixing the name of the alkane with fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo.

The number indicates the position of the halogen on the hydrocarbon chain In primary halogenoalkane (1-chlorobutane):
the halogen atom is bonded covalently to a carbon
atom which, in turn, has a covalent bond to just one
another carbon atom. In secondary halogenoalkane (2-chlorobutane):
the halogen atom is bonded covalently to a carbon
atom which, in turn, has a covalent bond to just two
another carbon atoms. In tertiary halogenoalkane (2-chloro-2-methylpropane):
the halogen atom is bonded covalently to a carbon
atom which, in turn, has a covalent bond to
three other carbon atoms. Nucleophilic Substitution The halogenoalkane involves substitution of
the halogen by a variety of other groups. In substitution reaction, the halogen atom will leave as a halide ion. It means that the atom that replace the halogen atom must posses a lone-pair of electrons. The lone-pair is donated to the slightly positive, carbon atom, and a mew covalent bond forms. Nucleophile = a chemical that can donate a pair of electrons, with the subsequent formation of a covalent bond Nucleophilic attack is followed by loss of the bromine atom as a bromine ion. A new covalent bond between the nucleophile and carbon is formed Nucleophilic Substitution
in a tertiary halogenoalkane is different from that is discussed before Reaction with Amonia If halogenoalkane is mixed with an excess with ethanolic ammonia and heated under pressure, amines are formed. Reaction with Cyanide ions When halogenoalkanes are heated under reflux with ethanolic sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide, nitrites are formed Reactions with other
Substances Elimination Reactions Halogenoalkane undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions with aqueous alcoholic sodium hydroxide to produce alcohols The rate of the elimination reaction is faster than the rate of the nucleophilic substitution reaction. At lower temperatures, the substitution reaction proceeds at a faster rate. The use of halogen compounds - Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory medicine, which requires alkyl group to be joined to benzene

- poly(chloroethene) better known as PVC

-CFCs, such as dichlorodifluromethane or trichlorofluoromethane (refrigerants, aerosol propellants) Thank You, Guys!
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