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The French Revolution
Transcript of The French Revolution
Louis XVI This made the people of France very angry and would also influence the storming of the Bastille on July 14. The Enlightenment "Freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society – rather than the divine right of kings or traditions as the ruling authority." 1756 Start of the 7 Years War This would devastate France financially. 1789 1778 France declares war on Britain and supports the American colonies. French contribution also contributed to France's debt. The Estates- General meets for the first time since 1614. Tennis Court
Oath pledged. The Storming of the Bastille The women of Paris invade Versailles due to starvation and political frustration. Their goal was to kill Marie Antoinette. This forced the Royal Family back to Paris where they were placed under "house arrest". The Assembly claims inseparability from the king. 1791 The National Assembly declares the king inviolable and he is reinstated. 1792 Food riots in Paris The Guillotine was adopted as official means of execution France declares war against Austria The people storm the
Tuileries and confront the king Brunswick Manifesto- warns that the Royal Family be harmed by the popular movement News of the Brunswick Manifesto reaches Paris and is interpreted as proof that Louis XVI was collaborating with foreign Coalition. Storming of the Tuileries Palace. Swiss Guard massacred. Louis and his family were arrested and taken into custody. In the year 1789, a drought destroyed many crops causing the prices of bread to increase. Bread was an important food for the Parisians and the increase in prices would cause many to starve and become poor. The King was trying to find solutions to his government's financial problems. *Note that there are 3 Estates: 1st Estate consists of the Clergy, 2nd consists of the Nobles and the 3rd is made up of the majority; the "Common Folk." The 3rd Estate wanted voting to be based on the number of people rather than as three bodies (1st, 2nd and 3rd Estate). But the other two Estates didn't agree. After much dispute and little progress, the 3rd Estate decided to call themselves the National Assembly. They invited the other Estates to join them; however, not as Estates but as people but the Assembly would conduct France's affairs with or without them. On June 20th, the King closed the room where the National Assembly would meet... After being locked out, the National Assembly moves to the king's tennis court where they made the Tennis Court Oath: they agreed to not separate until they settled the constitution of France. Two days later, the National Assembly moved to the Church of Saint-Louis after being locked out of the Tennis Court. There a majority of the 1st Estate join the Assembly. 1793 Louis XVI is sentenced to the guillotine. The Reign of Terror court sentenced 20,000 to 40,000 people to death. 1794 Reign of Terror continues. The National Convention arrested Robespierre. Robespierre was beheaded. 1795 A new constitution was adopted. 1799 The Fall of the Directory of Heralds ends the French Revolution. Political Conflict: conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the "reform" of the tax system crippled the government and led to bankruptcy. Economic Hardship: The Agrarian Crisis in 1788-89 initiated public displeasure and disorders caused by shortages. The king and his family attempted to flee to Austria, but were arrested. Only the commoners were being taxed while nobles and the clergy didn't have to pay a cent. The Bastille was medieval fortress and prison in Paris and it represented royal authority in the center of Paris. While the prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution Louis XVI didn't approve the new Assembly.
On July 12th, 1789 the King dismissed his very popular Minister of Finances, Jacques Necker, who was empathic towards the 3rd estate. On July 13th a rumor spread in the streets of Paris of a coming counter attack by the King's army to 'destabilize' the newly proclaimed parliamentarians. On July 13th rumor spread in the streets of Paris of a coming counter attack by the King's army (mostly foreign soldiers). A group of merchants and craftsmen stole weapons from the Invalides; however, they couldn't find any gunpowder. So they attacked the Bastille were gun powder was being stored. Marquis Bernard-Rene de Launaye tried to make negotiations in hopes of holding off the group until back-up came; however as soon as the mob entered the prison soldiers started firing at the citizens. When back-up came, instead of aiding the soldiers, the french military sided with the civilians. In a few hours the mob overcame The rest of the guards were kill and the Marquis was beheaded after surrendering. That night the revolutionist destroyed the Bastille. Women's March on Versailles Began with women rioting at the market over the high price and scarcity of bread. These events effectively ended the independent authority of the king and the march symbolized a new balance of power that displaced the ancient privileged of the French nobility, favoring the nation's common people. *Defining moment of that Revolution* Maximilien de Robespierre inspire the Reign of Terror as a way to use the guillotine to create what he called a 'republic of virtue', where terror and virtue, as well as his principles, would be followed. French lawyer, politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution.