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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF DRY CELLS

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Rishabh Sinha

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF DRY CELLS


LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALKALINE CELLS
Disposable alkaline batteries
References
Guidebook for Evaluating Mining Projects EIAs. 2010. Website of Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide: http://www.elaw.org/. Accessed 12022014: http://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf

The World of Alkaline Batteries. 2012. Website of Battery Power Magazine: http://www.batterypoweronline.com/. Accessed 12022014:

http://www.batterypoweronline.com/main/markets/batteries/the-world-of-alkaline-batteries/
What’s Inside A Battery? 2014. Website Of Raw Materials Company Inc:

http://www.rawmaterials.com/. Accessed 12022014:
http://www.rawmaterials.com/page/education/battery-inside/

Batteries 101: How Batteries Work. 2014. Website of Energizer: http://www.energizer.com/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 12022014:

Reidies, A.H. 2000. Manganese Comopunds. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemis-try. New York. John Wiley & Sons.

RMC Technology, Technology for alkaline batteries, accessed 13022014. http://www.rawmaterials.com/page/technology/

Zinc Environmental Profile. 2012 Website of International Zinc Association: http://www.zinc.org/. Accessed 12022014: http://www.zinc.org/general/Zinc_Environmental_Profile_Life_Cycle_Assessment.pdf

Life Cycle
Raw Material extraction
Manufacturing
Distribution
Use
Ultimate Fate
Recycling
Landfills
Common formats: AAA, AA, C, D, 9 Volt and micro alkaline button cells

Energy produced from the reaction of zinc and manganese dioxide
Zn (s) + 2MnO2 (s) <---> ZnO(s) + Mn2O3 (s)
Although here they do not pose much damage to the environmental as manufacturers eliminated all mercury from it since 1993, which earlier was a major environmental concern.
The electrolyte used in these batteries is potassium or sodium hydroxide, a purely
alkaline
substance

Consist of approximately 25% steel, 60% zinc, manganese dioxide and potassium or sodium hydroxide and 15% paper, plastic and other metals such as nickel and lead

Picture from
Chrome Battery
When discarded cells can land up in landfills
or recycling plant
On the other hand if they land up in a recycling plant through following a proper channel of waste separation- collection centers- recycling plants.
Alkaline cells are popular, multi-use premium batteries with high rate performance and good shelf life.

Used for general purpose applications including lighting, photographic equipments, toys, communication equipment, radio, remote controls, clocks, smoke alarms,etc.

Most useful in low power drain devices, as can retain 80% of its power for up to 7 years

Although there are some precaution which should be taken while disposing them
First one must make sure that potassium hydroxide inside the cell does not leak as it can cause chemical burns on skin and eyes.
Most alkaline dry cell manufacturing companies describe their customers as people, who buy products and service from them.
The distribution channel of alkaline dry cell is manufacture-distributor-retailer-user.

Alkaline cells are distributed to the customers by using rail transporting, truck transporting and ship transporting.

Harmful emissions from these transportation can be considered.
Most of the used alkaline batteries land up in landfills
and one should never dispose alkaline batteries in fire as they can explode.
Can remain in landfills for years since these are not biodegradable.




However, a major concern is that some of the essential metals like Mg, K, Zn and steel etc are buried and cannot be recycled anymore.
USE
Raw Material Extraction
Distribution
Here 100 % of all battery components can be recovered.
recovered metals like zinc, magnesium, and potassium can be utilized as micro nutrients for growing plants like corn and the recovered plastic and paper can be used for producing energy.

recovered nickel and steel which constitutes 25% of the alkaline cell can be sold back in the market.
THANK YOU
Metals are mined from ore deposits, which has harmful environmental impacts

Manganese dioxide is produced from manganese ores and potassium hydroxide from potassium chloride by chemical processes

Production of steel requires high temperatures and a lot of water.
TABLE 4. INPUTS AND OUTPUTS FROM THE BATTERY MANUFACTURING

Inputs

Amount per Battery

Water 32g
Electricity 0.02kWh
Natural Gas, burned in industrial furnace 25kJ
Fuel Oil, burned in industrial furnace 9.3kJ

Outputs

Amount per Battery
VOC 0.02g
Waste (for recycling) 1.1g
Waste (for disposal) 0.52g
Waste Water 32g

Alkaline batteries account for 80% of manufactured batteries in the US and over 10 billion individual units produced worldwide. In Japan alkaline batteries account for 46% of all primary battery sales. In Switzerland alkaline batteries account for 68%, in the UK 60% and in the EU 47% of all battery sales including secondary types.
Manufacture
http://www.electrical4u.com/alkaline-batteries/
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