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The atmosphere has wind patterns:
Transcript of The atmosphere has wind patterns:
is air that moves horizontally or parallel to the ground. Air Pressure can differ from place to place because of the uneven heating of earth's surface, which set air in motion. Over a short distance wind moves from high pressure to low pressure.
How wind forms
1. Sunlight strongly heats an area of ground. The ground heats the air. The warm air rises, an a area of low pressure forms.
2. Sunlight heats an area of ground less strongly. The cooler, dense air sinks slowly, and an area of high pressure forms.
3. Air moves as wind across the surface, from higher toward lower pressure.
travel thousands of kilometers in steady patterns.
can last for several weeks.
Uneven heating between the equator and the North and South poles can cause global winds.
Earth's Rotation affects wind direction
Earth's rotation changes the direction of winds and other objects all over Earth.
The influence of Earth's rotation is called the Coriolis affect.
Global winds curve as Earth turns beneath them.
In the Northern Hemisphere winds curve to the right and in the Southern hemisphere they curve to the left .
The Coriolis effect is noticeable only for winds that travel long distances.
The air usually stays calm in high pressure and low pressure zones . Winds are light, and they often change direction.
1. The doldrums
are a low pressure zone near the equator. There warm air rises to the top of troposphere. The air spreads out towards the poles. During the hottest months, heavy evaporation from warm ocean water fuels tropical storms.
2. The horse latitudes
are high pressure zones located about 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator. warm air traveling away from the equator cools and sinks in these regions. The weather tends to be clear and dry.
Wind Belts 3 Zones
As dense air sinks to earth's surface in the horse latitudes and other high pressure zones, it flows out toward regions of low pressure.
3. The trade winds
blow from the east, moving from horse latitudes towards the equator. These strong steady winds die out as they come to the equator.
4. The westerlies
blow from the West, movig from the horse latitudes towards the poles. They bring stroms across much of the United States.
5. The easterlies
blow from the east, moving from polar region toward the mid latitudes. Stormy weather often occurs when the cold air of the easterlies meets the warmer air of the westerlies.
Jet Streams flow near the top of the troposphere
Jet Streams usually flow in the upper troposphere from West to east for thousands of kilometers.
Each hemisphere usually has two jet streams, a polar jet stream and a subtropical jet stream. The polar jet streams flows closer to the poles in summer than winter.
The polar jet stream has a strong influence on weather. It can pull cold air from Canada to the United States and the sub tropical jet stream can pull warm air towards Canada.
Jet Streams also help in making weather predictions and air travel.
Sea breezes and land breezes occur near shorelines.
During the day, land heats up faster than water. The air over the land rises and expands. Denser ocean air moves into the area of low pressure , producing a
At night, when the land cools faster than water warm air rises over the ocean, and cooler air flows in producing a land breeze.
Winds that change direction with seasons are monsoons. Like sea breezes and land breezes monsoons are caused by the different heating and cooling rates of the land and sea. Monsoons however flow longer distances and affect much longer distances.
Winter monsoons occur in regions where land becomes much cooler than the sea during winter. High pressure build up over the land , and cool dry wind blows towards the sea.
Summer monsoons occur as the land becomes much warmer than the sea. Bringing heavy rains. The most extreme monsoons occur in South Asia and Southeast Asia during the summer.