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The Integumentary System

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Taylor Adams

on 14 May 2010

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Transcript of The Integumentary System

Integumentary System Skin Epidermis/Cuticle Dermis Hypodermis The cuticle consists of mainly dead epithial cells that continually flake and fall off so new cells can push up The dermis is mainly composed of adipose tissue, which includes blood cells and some fat cells Adipose tissue acts as an insulator for the skin to keep the body warm Thickest layer of skin which is typically 3 milimeters thick on your back and .3 mm on your eyelid Oil Glands are also present here in the dermis The fat layer of the skin Also known as the Subcataneous fat layer of the skin This layer also contains multiple blood vessels as you can see in the diagram To maintain homeostasis in the body, animals typically have hair, feathers, or a thick fat layer to regulate their body temperature The integumentary system has a variety of functions; it may serve to waterproof, cushion and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, regulate temperature and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure and temperature. In humans the integumentary system additionally provides vitamin D synthesis. the layer where melanin is produced this layer produces keratin which stiffens the epidermal tissue to form fingernails 5 different layers stratum basale - has cells that are shaped like columns. In this layer the cells divide and push already formed cells into higher layers. As the cells move into the higher layers, they flatten and eventually die. 2. the stratum spinosum - the cells here produce and excrete BIPOLAR lipids which give the skin its "water proof" layer Top layer of the skin Two Layers Papillary Reticular Loosely arranged elastic fibers
Fibrous bands anchoring the skin to the deep fascia
Fat, except in the eyelid, scrotum, penis, nipple and areola
Hair follicle roots
Nerves: free endings and Panicinian corpuscles
Bursae, in the space overlying joints in order to facilitate smooth passage of overlying skin
Fine, flat sheets of muscle, in certain locations, including the scalp, face, hand, nipple, and scrotuim, called the panniculus carnosus Accounts for 15% of the skin's thickness The absence of the hypodermis skin under the eyes contributes to the dark circles under the eyes. Contains sweat glands sweat glands are presnt throughout the whole body except for on the palms of your hand and soles of your feet The papillary dermis contains vascular networks that have two important functions.
The first being to support the avascular epidermis with vital nutrients and secondly to provide a network for thermoregulation. The papillary dermis is organized so that by increasing or decreasing blood flow, heat can either be conserved or dissipated. The papillary dermis also contains the free sensory nerve endings. consists of dense irregular connective tissue.
Also has almost twice as many cells as the papillary layer of the skin
The reticular layer of the dermis is important in giving the skin it overall strength, as well as housing other important epithelial derived structures such as glands and hair follicles.
gives your skin its ability to stretch and basically allows the skin's elasticity In humans and other mammals the main oil glands are the sebaceous glands, which secrete oil that helps protect skin and hair. Skin Diseases and Disorders Skin cancer - is the most common form of human cancer.
warning sign of skin cancer is a change in the appearance of the skin, such as a new growth or a sore that will not heal.
The most serious type of skin cancer is called Melanoma
It begins in skin cells called melanocytes.
Melanocytes are the cells that make melanin, which gives skin its color. Melanin also protects the deeper layers of the skin from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays.

Melanoma Acne happens when oil (sebaceous) glands come to life around puberty
Sebum (oil) is a natural substance which lubricates and protects the skin cells that are close to the surface block the openings of sebaceous glands and cause a buildup of oil underneath. This oil stimulates bacteria (which live on everyone's skin and generally cause no problems) to multiply and cause surrounding tissues to become inflamed.
Some causes of acne range from what you eat to hormones and stress. Treating Acne
Cleanse twice daily with a 5% benzoyl peroxide wash. An alternative for those who are allergic to benzoyl peroxide is 2% salicylic acid.
Apply a gel or cream containing 5% benzoyl peroxide
A very popular but yet effective way to get rid of zits/acne is to use a home remedy known as Toothpaste, the toothpaste because it also contains benzoyl peroxide Treatment of Melanoma Surgery is the usual treatment for melanoma. The surgeon removes the tumor and some normal tissue around it. This procedure reduces the chance that cancer cells will be left in the area.
Chemotherapy, the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, is sometimes used to treat melanoma. The drugs are usually given in cycles: a treatment period followed by a recovery period, then another treatment period, and so on.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. A large machine directs radiation at the body. The patient usually has treatment at a hospital or clinic, five days a week for several weeks. Radiation therapy may be used to help control melanoma that has spread to the brain, bones, and other parts of the body. It may shrink the tumor and relieve symptoms
Biological therapy (also called immunotherapy) is a form of treatment that uses the body's immune system, either directly or indirectly, to fight cancer or to reduce side effects caused by some cancer treatments
The stratum corneum is the outermost of the 5 layers of the epidermis and is largely responsible for the vital barrier function of the skin. The stratum lucidum layer is only present in thick skin where it helps reduce friction and shear forces between the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum. Cells that move into the spinosum layer, also called prickle cell layer, change from being columnar to polygonal. In this layer the cells start to synthesize keratin coming from the stratum basale layer Seborrheic Keratosis Acne A benign skin disorder due to excessive growth of the top layer of skin cells, usually found in persons over 30 years old.
They may appear as just one growth or in clusters.
They are most often brown but can differ in color and range anywhere from light tan to black.
It is also triggered sometimes by pregnancy
Most often found on the back and chest but can appear anywhere on the body Treating Seborrheic Keratosis Freezing -- A very cold liquid called liquid nitrogen is applied to the growth with a cotton swab or spray gun to freeze it. Blisters may form under the growth that dry into a scablike crust. The keratosis usually falls off within a few weeks.
Scraping --The growths are removed by scraping them from the surface of the skin. An injection or spray is first used to numb the area before the growth is removed. Bleeding is very limited.
Electrosurgery -- Electrosurgery is another form of treatment. The growth is first numbed, then burned using an electric current and then scraped off. Varicella (Chicken Pox Chickenpox is a common childhood skin disease caused by a virus. The virus is called the varicella
Chickenpox is characterized by one to two days of mild fever up to 102
Symptoms generally start to appear between 16 to 21 days of exposure
general weakness is also another sign
The most distinguishing symptom is a rash usually showing up as veryu itchy red spots spread throughout the body

Treating Chicken Pox Most medications are aimed towards to decreasing the severity of the symptoms
Tylenol can be used to reduce the fever and aches and itch of the sores
Benadryl can also help reduce the amount the sores itch
Another is Oatmeal baths, this also helps reduce the itching but is not a preferred treatment
Recently in some cases people have been perscribed acyclovir, which is an anti viral medication that reduces the duration of the infection The Stratum Granulosum - there is a lot of activity in this layer as keratin proteins and water-proofing lipids are being produced and organized while slowly being pushed toward the surface The epidermis contains 5 layers. From bottom to top the layers are named stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum licidum, and stratum corneum. The bottom layer, the stratum basale, has cells that are shaped like columns. In this layer the cells divide and push already formed cells into higher layers. As the cells move into the higher layers, they flatten and eventually die. The top layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, is made of dead, flat skin cells that shed about every 2 weeks. Hair Hair is an outgrowth of filamentous cells, containing keratin, that grows from follicles found in the dermis. The human body, apart from the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair.
Found primarily in mammals this is one of the distinctive features of a mammal
Hair often refers to two distinct structures the part beneath the skin, called the hair follicle or when pulled from the head called the bulb. This organ is located in the dermis and maintains stem cells which not only re-grow the hair after it falls out but also are recruited to regrow skin after a wound
the shaft, which is considered the part of the hair above the skin surface though it appears first in the epidermis.
this picture of hair has been magnified 200X Terminal Hair - are thick, long, and dark, as compared with vellus hair. During puberty, the increase in androgenic hormone levels causes vellus hair to be replaced with terminal hair in certain parts of the human body. These parts will have different levels of sensitivity to androgens, primarily of the testosterone family.
The pubic area is particularly sensitive to such hormones. Pubic hair will develop on both men and women, to the extent that such hair qualifies as a secondary sex characteristic, although males will develop terminal hair in more areas. This includes facial hair, chest hair, abdominal hair, leg and arm hair, and foot hair.Human females on the other hand can be expected to retain more of the vellus hair. Vellus Hair - short, fine, light colored, and barely noticed hairs, which develop on most of the human body from childhood, regardless of sex. Exceptions include the lips, the backs of the ears, the palms of hands, the soles of the feet, certain external genital areas, the navel and scar tissue. The density of hair – the number of hair follicles per area of skin – varies from person to person.
Vellus hair provides insulation for the body, regulates body temperature, and also helps remove perspiration such as when u sweat
Nails/Claws a nail is a horn-like envelop covering the top of the fingers and toes Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protein called keratin. Along with hair and teeth they are an appendage of the skin.
The nail is made up of three main parts
Nail Plate
Nail Matrix
Nail Bed
The Nail Matrix is the tissue (or germinal matrix) upon which the nail rests. The matrix is responsible for the production of the cells that become the nail plate. The width and thickness of the nail plate is determined by the size, length, and thickness of the matrix. As new nail plate cells are incubated, they emerge from the matrix round and white to push older nail plate cells forward; and in this way yet older cells become compressed, flat, and translucent, making the pink colour of the capillaries in the nail bed below visible.
The Nail bed is the skin beneath the nail plate and is made up of two layers, the dermis and epidermis
The Nail plate is the tough protein Keratin on top of the Nail Matrix. It grows typically 3mm a month and 1 mm on the toes. Careers
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