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Inclusion in ELT
Transcript of Inclusion in ELT
It is essential to be aware that each case is unique, that there is no recipe and that the mode of integration will depend on the exceptionality of each case.
School integration should be extremely carefully planned since more than often
instead of including a child in the school system; he can end up being excluded
(Borsani & Gallicchio, 2008: 47).
Administrative support is also essential for the success of inclusion. The institution should promote meetings with
mainstream teachers and professionals related to the disability or problem the student poses, write regular reports to follow the student’s progress and share with teachers of other subjects. If this is not the case, as soon as teachers see something different in a child, this should be consulted with the mainstream teacher, psychopedagogist, if there is one in the school, and work in a team.
Sometimes it is necessary to have a special educator or aid or independence facilitator
present in the class. This presence can be very helpful; however when it comes to the teaching of a foreign language, the assistance of the special educator can sometimes be limited. Teachers should consider that special educators are a valuable source of information and should see the value of working as a team with other specialists.
Within this second group, adaptations take the form of prioritizing, introducing
, suppressing and sequencing objectives and contents; using, selecting, modifying methods, procedures, activities, materials and procedures; selecting and modifying evaluative instruments and criteria for promotion; adjusting the temporal schedule for a term or for certain objectives or content.
Special Educational Needs are relative, and they depend on each educational context,
that is why they cannot be considered definite.
Special Educational Needs can be permanent or temporary. In either case, adaptations are seen as a bridge to construct knowledge.
In Music, Art, Technology, Foreign Language, etc. teachers work with students once or twice a week, and although
the school may be considered inclusive, many a times it happens that the teachers of these subjects are often not told that a child with special needs is incorporated in the class and ignores it. Moreover, some teachers get acquainted with this situation when the school year is advanced, and do not always accept it willingly (Borsani & Gallicchio, 2008). In all these cases it is very difficult for these teachers to act according to what the situation warrants.
All this is common practice in inclusive schools in
the main subjects, but what happens in the so-
called “special subjects”?
The terminology used shows that different lines of thought coexist.
Following a more modern analysis (Grzona, 2009), makeS a distinction between integration and inclusion based on ontological and methodological points of view.
Latest theories, on the other hand, framed in a socio-cognitive-constructivist perspective,
understand the curriculum from a more open position, based on a flexible curriculum
that can be revised and adjusted according to different students and varied contexts,
which supports the inclusion of significant content and is inclusive of subjects in areas,
which prioritizes the learning process and
that sees error as part of a process..
In this view, the teacher is conceived as a
mediator of learning and as
A narrow conception of curriculum sees it as rigid, homogenizing, designed by educational administrators, based only on declarative concepts, subdivided into unrelated subjects, prioritizing content and product, and punishing errors. This is a behaviorist-positivist view in which the teacher is the bearer of knowledge and the student is considered a container that stores the ideas put forward by the teacher.
One of the reasons for exclusion is the emphasis placed only on academic aspects, not on content.
This issue is closely related to the conception of curriculum.
According to Borsani (2008) the curriculum is the cultural organized selection of skills, values, contents, methods, procedures to be learned and taught
School is increasingly more excluding or
expulsive, such a school is unable to estimate
the diversity of its population, and regards as misfits the students who do not conform to this homogeneity.
Therefore, excludes them from the system. An inclusive school, on the other hand, is the one that uses valid strategies so that its members can be considered active participants in it
Currently we talk about inclusive societies. “An inclusive community is one that advocates the support of the weakest members
of a community in such a way that these weaker members feel part of it, feel welcomed, interrelated, supported, included and are able to participate in it from their own reality” (Mendia Gallardo, 2007: 04).
Bio-psycho-social models propose a holistic approach to education attending to diversity and learning differences, considering the learning process as a whole, bearing in mind the student, the teacher, the environment in which the educational process is developed, as well as the socio-familiar context.
Moreover, people with disabilities have needs common to all people,
in the working place, educational needs, or of entertainment, of affection, etc.
Apart from these needs common to everyone, disabled people also have specific needs related to their limitation, such as a wheelchair or a specific device, hearing aids, visual aids, etc.
These domains are classified from body,
individual and societal perspectives
The ICF puts the notions of ‘health’ and ‘disability’ in a new light.
It acknowledges that every human being can experience a decrement
(the process of becoming smaller or shorter) in health and thereby experience some degree of disability.
Disability is not something that only happens to a minority of humanity.
Bio-psycho-social models, on the rise since 2001,
are based on a framework provided by the WHO  to describe and measure health and disability: the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). This is a classification of health and health-related domains.  World Health Organisation.
Psychological models focused on a description of the maturational stages of
intelligence of the individual.
These models present limitations because they do not address the various ways in which each child makes sense of his cultural environment.
 Deficiency: it is any loss or abnormality of a psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function. Or it is an anatomical or functional impairment that affects an individual in the function of the organs. http://libreopinion.com/members/fundacionhomero/conceptodiscapacidad.html
 Disability: it is the result of a deficiency on physical, intellectual, emotional or social-emotional activities, or any restriction or lack of ability (due to impairment) to perform an activity in the way or within the range considered normal for a human being. http://libreopinion.com/members/fundacionhomero/conceptodiscapacidad.html
Some terms stand out because of their negative connotation. This model gives a limited account of the phenomenon of disability since it only emphasizes health problems.
Have you ever had a student that had different capabilities in your classes?
Did you have enough information about this situation before meeting the class?
How did you handle the situation?
Were you given possible courses of action to cope with it?
Was this process followed by the school, teachers, special educators, paraprofessionals, parents or any other aid?
If we want to live in a more
inclusive society that really offers inclusive education, many aspects should be taken into account. First, the conception of the person from a bio-psycho-social perspective, then a socio-cognitive constructivist approach in education, collaboration and teamwork in institutions, the plethora of strategies available to teachers,
and last but not least consideration of
the context that surrounds
Some food for thought
.different learning styles and strategies,
.multiple intelligence theory,
.theory of cognitive modifiability,
.cooperative learning strategies,
.use of ICTs
.curricular adaptation, etc.,
.that appeal to creative and
Strategies and tools available in order to deal with diversity
I. Special Needs of conditions to have access to the curriculum
Provision of special educational situations
Provision of personal resources
Provision of material resources
Provision of physical access to school and its premises.
II. Special Needs of curricular adaptation
Adaptations outlined in the Congress of Inclusive Education in Granada in 2000
Curricular Adaptations are, above all, strategies used by the educator to direct with more precision the aid students
are going to need. This implies a redefinition of the curriculum, reconsidering its elements and relationships and contextualizing the proposal in order to improve it”. (Torres González, 1999: 158)
Suggestions on how to face inclusion in the English class
Adjustments should not be seen as a weakening or reduction of the curriculum,
but as a way of making the construction of knowledge for these students possible and affordable.
“A curricular adaptation is neither a gift nor a present that is given to the student who has difficulties in learning, but just the opposite. It is a worthy proposal of work that respects the way in which the learner builds his own knowledge and at the same time it favors intellectual work” (Borsani, 2008: 19).
e) Ensure the inclusion of education through universal policies and teaching strategies, and resource
allocation to give priority to the most disadvantaged areas of society, f) Ensure conditions of equality respecting differences among people without allowing gender discrimination or any other, and
n) Provide persons with temporary or permanent disabilities with a pedagogical approach that allows them to develop their maximum potential, their integration and full exercise of their rights.
In Chapter II, Goals and Objectives of the National Educational Policy, Article 11 proposes
Promoted by Unesco in the Draft for the Framework of Action on Special Educational Needs, Salamanca, 1944 (Vain, 2006).
In Argentina this was present for the first time in the Federal Law of Education of 1993, which granted the first regulatory framework for integration and adaptations.
The current Law of National Education No. 26.206 also refers to the processes of integration or inclusion of persons with disabilities or SEN (NEE).
There are contradictions present in this Law (No. 26 206), the terms integration and inclusion are used interchangeably and this is confusing.
Special Educational Needs
In an inclusive community, an inclusive school bears an important role.
School and society need each other. However, social integration does not necessarily mean school integration.
Problems faced by inclusion
Biological models of disability: focused on negative aspects or restrictions:
the deficiencies that occur in the body, physiological or organic
a disability, understood as restrictions on the activity of an individual because of any deficiency, and
a disability, understood as unfavorable situations arising from deficiencies  or disabilities  that limit or prevent participation in social roles or performing normal levels.
Different theoretical models to account for the phenomenon of disability
The starting point to understand this reality
better is to clarify some theoretical concepts to be
able to approach this issue from a more informed
My blog in INCLUSION