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The Human Genome Project

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by

Dania Shoaib

on 11 February 2014

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Transcript of The Human Genome Project

Visual #1
Visual #2
Well, what are genes?

A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism. Genes undergo mutation when their DNA sequence changes.



Visual #5
Visual #4
The Human Genome Project
Visual #3
What is the Human Genome Project?
The Human Genome Project is an international research effort to determine the DNA sequence of the entire human genome, according to www.genome.gov .

Genome: The total genetic content contained in a haploid set of chromosomes in eukaryotes, in a single chromosome in bacteria, or in the DNA or RNA of viruses.
According to www.thefreedictionary.com

What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the carrier of genetic information. DNA contains adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine (A T C and G). These are four nitrogenous bases in DNA. DNA is a long molecule made up of units called nucleotides. One nucleotide is made up of three basic components: a 5 carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. DNA was discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick.

By: Dania Shoaib
The Human Genome
The Human Genome Books
*Dr. Francis Collins: National Institutes of Health director and former leader of the US government effort to sequence the human genome.
*Dr. Craig Venter
Both of the scientists mentioned above have had significant roles in leading the Human Genome Project. Both of them, together, publicly announced the completion of a draft of the human genome sequence. (357)
*The US Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health together coordinated the Human Genome Project from 1990-2003.

WHAT
message is being represented?
WHEN
-how does time relate?
WHERE
- important locations?
HOW
is this appealing to the common people?
This visual is seeking to represent the intricacy of the human genome. The human genome is comprised of 3 billion letters, yet only four of the the 26 letters in the alphabet are used (a, t, c, and g).
This visual is also representing the possibilities that can arise through sequencing the human genome, such as gene therapy.
In 2000, scientists joined Bill Clinton at the white house and announced the "working draft" of the human genome.
The Human Genome Project lasted from 1990 to 2003.
WHO
is involved, and why are they significant?
WHO
is involved and why are they significant?
Sources
The human genome was sequenced in multiple locations including the US, UK, France, Germany, Japan, and China.
WHAT
message is being represented?
WHERE
- important locations?
The books shown in the shelf are located at the Wellcome Collection in London, UK.

The colorful books shown with the staff of the University of Leicester are located in Leicester, UK.
WHEN
- how does time relate?
HOW
is this appealing to the common people?
At the University of Leicester, Cas Kramer and a group of scientists worked together to print out the whole human genome. PhD student John Wagstaff was asked to write a program to "print out the publicly available reference genome with a pre-specified number of characters on each page and a roughly equal number of pages for each volume, as well as some navigational information at the top of each page", according to http://www.bio-itworld.com/ .
The three visuals presented are seeking to represent the length of the human genome.

*The human genome is 3 billion letters long and when printed takes up more than 100 books (130 at Leicester)

* The human genome is so long that if someone sat down and typed very fast for eight hours everyday, it would take 50 years to type the whole genome; however, it takes our cells only eight hours to copy the whole sequence.
This information...
*would fill a stack of paperback books 200 ft high
*would take a century to recite, if we recited at one letter per second for 24 hours a day
*if spread out 1 mm apart, would extend 1864 miles or about 7000 times the height of the Empire State Building.

The books at the Wellcome Collection in London were printed back in 2006.

The books in Leicester were printed in 2012.
WHO

is involved, and why are they significant?
For this visual, the human race. We are all significant in this case because the human genome is exclusively for humans! Your genome is what makes you who you are.
When someone sees that the human genome has been sequenced they may feel that there really is something that science can fall back on to explain "why?" Sometimes people learn about an issue or trait they may have that may not be very pleasant. An example is that of cystic fibrosis. In 1989, Collins found this gene after many many years of research. Someone who has cystic fibrosis may be relieved to find out the cause of their problem.
WHAT
message is being represented?
This visual is representing two things, unity and diversity. The human genome is 99.9% identical throughout the world. The other .1% is the DNA that is responsible for our individual differences such as eye color and risk for disease. This .1% also includes some DNA that has no actual function.
WHEN
- how does time relate?
Those populations that came out of Africa some 70,000 years ago - ancestors of modern day Europeans, East Asians and South Asians- are especially similar.
WHERE
- important locations?
An important location for this visual is Africa. Genetic studies largely back up the archeological and linguistic studies that present the idea that human life originated in Africa.
HOW
is this appealing to the common people?
WHO
is involved and why are they significant?
This visual pertains more to individuals than humans as a group.
Your
genome is unique to you. Studying your DNA can reveal more about who you are such as where your ancestors originated from, what traits your family holds, and even how resistant your body is to certain diseases.
WHAT
message is being represented?
WHEN
- how does time relate?
HOW
is this appealing to the common people?
An example of someone who benefited from having their DNA sequenced is Angelina Jolie. Angelina Jolie had her DNA tested and it was found that she carried a faulty gene for breast cancer. When she found out that she had this faulty gene, she underwent a double mastectomy.
WHERE
- important locations?
WHO
is involved and why are they significant?
WHAT
message is being represented?
This visual is representing that the Human Genome Project was an international effort. Generally when we think about such a large scale project we automatically think that it takes place in the US or UK. However, this is not the case with the Human Genome Project.
There are many universities and organizations all over the world that are involved with the Human Genome Project.

In the US:
*National Institutes of Health
*US Department of Energy
*Stanford University
*Baylor College of Medicine
*Washington University
*the Universities of Utah, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.

There are 16 other institutions spread across 6 nations that were involved with the Human Genome Project.

WHEN
- how does time relate?
In 1986, scientists at the US Department of Energy envisioned analyzing human DNA. In 1988, National Institutes of Health joined them and by 1990 they announced the start of the Human Genome Project. It was predicted to be a 15 year effort, meaning it would last until 2005. But after considering the worldwide advancements, the expected number of years reduced down to 13. It was successfully completed in 2003.
WHERE
- important locations?
The important locations include 6 countries:
*US
*UK
*China
*Japan
*France
*Germany
HOW
is this appealing to the common people?
"Seeing the entire human genome printed out in book form is very fascinating!"
-My Brother
"It's crazy to think that scientists have printed out the
whole genome
!"
-My Sister
"Wait, so does this mean that my barber and I are 99.9% the same?!"
-My Brother
As you can see, those who see this visual feel amazed to find out that they are related to those around them very closely!
Within the next five years or so, people will be able to have their own DNA sequenced for about $1000. In fact, Dr. Collins envisions a world where everyone gets their DNA sequenced as part of a regular checkup. Having your DNA sequenced can even help doctors treat you based on your needs!
This visual is seeking to represent individuality. The Human Genome Project has open so many doors to opportunities involving your individual DNA. For example, you can have your DNA sequenced to help you find out about your ancestry, about you risk for disease, and how closely related you are to those around you.
23andMe
is a genetic testing service. This service is mainly to help people find out about their ancestry. By submitting your DNA you can find out about your maternal and paternal lineages. You can also find out what percentage of your genome came from Neanderthals.
"Encyclopedia Genomica: UK Scientists Print the Book of Life in 130 Volumes." - Bio-IT World. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.
"Human Genome Project Completion: Frequently Asked Questions." Human Genome Project Completion: Frequently Asked Questions. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2014.
"The Human Genome Project." The Human Genome Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
"Human Journey - National Geographic Magazine." Human Journey - National Geographic Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.
"Leicester Scientists Print Human Genome in 130 Books." YouTube. YouTube, 06 Dec. 2012. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.
Miller, Kenneth R., and Joseph S. Levine. Prentice Hall Biology. Boston, MA: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.
"An Overview of the Human Genome Project." An Overview of the Human Genome Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2014.
"Pages from the First Human Genome." Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.
Than, Ker. "HUMAN GENOME AT TEN: 5 Breakthroughs, 5 Predictions." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 31 Mar. 2010. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.
Than, Ker. "HUMAN GENOME AT TEN: 5 Breakthroughs, 5 Predictions." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 31 Mar. 2010. Web. 03 Feb. 2014.
"VIDEO: Scientists Print out Human genome." VIDEO: Scientists Print out Human Genome. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2014.
"Your Story Begins as Far Back as You Can Imagine." 23andMe. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
"HMS." Puzzling Out Variability of the Human Genome. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
"The National Chemical Genomics Center, Rockville, Maryland." The Addi and Cassi Fund Niemann Pick Type C RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
"The National Chemical Genomics Center, Rockville, Maryland." The Addi and Cassi Fund Niemann Pick Type C RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
"The National Chemical Genomics Center, Rockville, Maryland." The Addi and Cassi Fund Niemann Pick Type C RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
"The National Chemical Genomics Center, Rockville, Maryland." The Addi and Cassi Fund Niemann Pick Type C RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014.
"The National Chemical Genomics Center, Rockville, Maryland." The Addi and Cassi Fund Niemann Pick Type C RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014
Sources for Pictures
When someone sees that something is international they feel like everyone around the world is involved. Naturally, this makes one more enthusiastic towards the research.
* "Everybody's doing it" or "Everyone is involved"
Full transcript