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Anth111 Spr16 Migration
Transcript of Anth111 Spr16 Migration
Internal-- within national boundaries (rural to urban, internally displaced)
International-- across national boundaries
Transnational-- regular movement between or social, economic, political participation in two nations
Why do people migrate?
political or religious oppression
insufficient economic opportunities
16th - 18th Century
British, French, Spanish migrants claiming "new territory"
forced migration & enslavement of African population
migration of Europeans via indentured servitude system
Increase in migration from Ireland and China
Chinese Exclusion Act
Early 20th Century--
German, Italian, Eastern European migration
--escaping religious persecution
1965-- repealed quota systems
Theories emerged during the context of early 20th century migration
--concerned about the retention of 'ethnicity' versus assimilation
Park & Burgess (sociologists, circa 1925)
--assimilation process inevitable
--inter-group interaction & sharing experience would replace ethnic identities
--create a "melting-pot" of individuals with "American temperament"
assimilation-- process whereby individuals or groups absorbed into another (dominant) group
Gordon: two stages
--acculturation, then assimilation
--acculturation: process of acquiring "second culture", b/c of sustained and imbalanced contact
but...find that interaction between individuals and groups also reinforces categories of ethnicity in the context of social inequality & discrimination
--symbolic markers used to enhance distinction
Migration is stretching the network of human interaction
creating new opportunities for exchange
expand network beyond kinship or regional identities
pushes & pulls:
forces that spur migration from country of origin and draw migrants to a new destination
Destination aren't random!
better job opps
ideas about certain localities & lifestyles based on media
Bridges & Barriers
Where do people move to?
214 million international migrants
23% in North America
20% in U.S.
laborers on roads, canals, RR
Laborers in California gold mines, farming, & RR
public debates about how to situate Chinese & Irish into a 'racial' classification
--also understood as separate, inferior 'races'
--race also classified by class position, dedication to Christianity, & conformity to dominant social standards
--Immigration Act of 1917
--restricted anyone from Asia, as well as curbing migration from Eastern & Southern Europe
politicians, scientists, preachers, & pressed warned about 'destroying' the 'unity' of the US.
National origins Acts of 1924
quota system and ranking 'success' based on "race"
no quotas for migrants from South America or Central America
Migration: Negotiating Social Interaction and Exclusion
How do other populations, like undocumented workers in the U.S. develop strategies and behaviors to cope with social interaction & exclusion, financial stresses, & living conditions?
Out of Africa: AMH
200,000 years ago
Long history of migration
>14,000 years ago
Territorial boundaries fluid
Large states - Aztec, Maya, Olmecs, Toltecs
For the U.S., migration is central to our "origin myth"
Border at Rio-Grande in 1854
US business recruited in Mexico for laborers in agriculture, manufacturing, construction
culturally constructed "social category of people based on perceptions of shared social experience or ancestry"
shared cultural practice & history