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Rag Time/ Early Jazz
Transcript of Rag Time/ Early Jazz
what is Rag Time?
Ragtime was popular towards the end of the 19th century and into the first two decades of the 20th century, roughly 1893 to 1917.
Style of music that preceded jazz
Considered the first completely American music
Ragtime’s use of syncopation is largely what distinguished it. Its rhythms made it lively and springy, ideal for dancing.
- a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm
"Ragged time"- refers to its rhythmically broken up melodies
Ragtime developed in African American communities throughout the southern parts of the Midwest, particularly Missouri
Bands would combine the structure of marches with black songs and dances years before being published as popular sheet music for piano.
Scott Joplin and Jelly Roll Morton were the most famous composers of ragtime music.
African music was still prominent, as drumming and dancing were some of the few freedoms allowed slaves before emancipation.
Military marching bands began to influence New Orleans music in the first two decades of the 20th century.
Communities formed brass bands that played and marched in parades to accompany funerals and holidays.
Musicians based in the red light district of New Orleans, known as “Storyville,” combined these styles with blues and improvisation, developing the first forms of jazz in bars .
Early jazz is often referred to as “Hot Jazz”
It incorporated the fast and spirited nature of ragtime, and the use of trumpets, trombones, drums, saxophones, clarinets, banjos, and either a bass or a tuba.
A jazz piano style that was developed in New York, during World War I (1920s-1930s).
The term “stride” comes from the action of the left hand as it strikes a bass note and then moves swiftly up the keyboard to strike chord tones on every other beat.
Thomas "Fats" Waller (1904–1943) was an important contributor to the stride piano style.
Hot jazz groups and stride pianists often toured the country and developed followings throughout the south, and in cities such as Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Kansas City.
Bands in those regions formed as jazz became more and more popular, and were soon filling the dance halls leading into the swing era.
date of birth is not known, though it is estimated that he was born between the June 1867 and January 1868.
He grew up in a small town in Texas.
He left home during his teen years and began work as a traveling musician, playing in bars and dance halls where new musical forms were featured that formed the basis of ragtime.
He worked with a lawyer to ensure that he would receive a one-cent royalty of every sheet-music copy sold of his next composition, "The Maple Leaf Rag."
He published the ballet
Rag Time Dance
in 1902 and created his first opera.
By 1907, he had settled in New York to work on securing funding for another opera he had created.
By 1916, he had started to succumb to the ravages of syphilis, and was later hospitalized.
He died on April 1, 1917 in New York.
Maple Leaf Rag (1899)
It is one of the most famous of all ragtime pieces.
As a result Joplin was called the "King of Ragtime".
The piece gave Joplin a steady income for the rest of his life.
The Entertainer (1902)
Is sub-titled "A Rag Time Two Step"
It returned to top international prominence as part of the ragtime revival in the 1970s, when it was used as the theme music for the 1973 Oscar-winning film
Jelly Roll Morton
Ferdinand Joseph Lamothe was born on October 20 1890 in New Orleans, Louisiana.
He eventually adopted the last name of his stepfather, Morton.
He learned to play piano at age 10 and within a few years, he was playing in the red-light district bordellos, where he earned the nickname "Jelly Roll."
Beginning in 1926, he led Jelly Roll Morton's Red Hot Peppers, a seven piece band comprised of musicians who were well-versed in the New Orleans ensemble style.
Also Known as
Jelly Roll Blues (1915)
Born on August 4, 1901, in New Orleans, Louisiana.
So poor that he was nicknamed "The Battlefield."
He had to leave school in 5th grade to begin working.
In 1912, he fired his stepfather's gun in the air during a New Year's Eve celebration and was arrested.
He fell in love with music by the end of his teens.
In 1922, he received a call from King Oliver to come to Chicago and join his Creole Jazz Band.
By 1932, he had begun appearing in movies and made his first tour of England.
While he was beloved by musicians, he was too wild for most critics, who gave him some of the most racist and harsh review of his career.
During the mid '50s, his popularity overseas skyrocketed, leading him to be known as "Ambassador Satch". He performed all over the world throughout Europe, Africa and Asia in 1950s and 1960s.
Heart and kidney problems forced him to stop performing in 1969. He died in his sleep on July 6, 1971 in New York.
Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance.
With his instantly recognizable voice, Armstrong was also an influential singer, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes.
What a Wonderful World
A children's song written by Bob Thiele and George David Weiss. It was first recorded by Louis Armstrong.
The song has a hopeful, optimistic tone with regard to the future.
The song was not initially a hit in the United States, but was a major success in the United Kingdom.
a popular tune originally written by Rhodesian (Zimbabwean) musician August Musarurwa
Cabell "Cab" Calloway was a jazz singer, bandleader, showman, and actor. He was strongly associated with the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City.
A master of energetic scat singing and led one of the United States' most popular big bands from 1930s to 1940s
Band featured performers including trumpeters, saxophonists, guitarist, bassist, etc.
Minnie the Moocher (1931)
Most famous for its nonsensical "scat" lyrics
Calloway would have the audience participate by repeating each scat phrase in a form of call and response.
As a result of the success, he gained the nickname "The Hi De Ho Man"
An originator of big-band jazz, Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was a composer, pianist and bandleader who composed thousands of scores over his 50-year career
At the age of 7, he began studying piano and earned the nickname "Duke" for his gentlemanly ways.
Ellington made hundreds of recordings with his bands, appeared in films and on radio, and toured Europe on two occasions in the 1930s.
It Don't Mean a Thing (1932)
"It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing"
Probably the first song to use the phrase "swing" in the title, it introduced the term into everyday language
Born in a wealthy family in 1891, Porter was an American composer and songwriter who was drawn towards musical theater.
He began to achieve success in the 1920s, and by the 1930s he was one of the major songwriters for the Broadway musical stage.
Porter wrote the lyrics as well as the music for his songs.
Let's Do It (1928)
("Let's Fall in Love")
Porter's first Broadway success (the musical
Anything Goes (1934)
Written for his musical Anything Goes (1934)
Many of the lyrics feature humorous references to various figures of scandal and gossip in Depression-era high society.
"The bright blessed day, the dark sacred night. And I think to myself, what a wonderful world."
- Louis Armstrong
“A problem is a chance for you to do your best.”
"I'm a legend. You can't be in show business for 60 years and not be a legend."
- Cab Calloway