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Primary Sources vs. Secondary Sources

How to identify and differentiate between the two types of sources.
by

c b

on 1 December 2012

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Transcript of Primary Sources vs. Secondary Sources

Examples of Primary Sources Questions to help analyze
the source and determine if its
a primary OR secondary source Identifying Information Sources Primary Sources
vs.
Secondary Sources What type of document is it?
When was it created?
Who created it?
Did the creator have first-hand knowledge of the events?
Are they reporting on what others heard or witnessed?
Was the object created during or after the event?
Is the source an analysis, interpretation, or evaluation of events? So, what are they? Letters
Diaries
Speeches
Interviews
Sound Recordings and video footage
Photographs
Newspaper articles from that period
Autobiographies
Oral histories Primary sources are original unedited materials (documents or objects) created during a specific period in history.
Primary sources are the written or produced materials that provide first-hand information of events occurring during the point in time you are researching.
First-hand sources of information are created or expressed by people who were directly involved in or witnessed events occurring during that period of time. What are Primary Sources? Encyclopedia
Almanac
Magazines
Textbooks (history)
Literary Criticisms Secondary Sources: Other Birth Certificates
Government records
Census records
Court documents
Clothing
Artifacts(art, buildings)
Maps Primary Source: Other sources Example of biography:
The biography of Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention. Written by Manning Marable on the life of Malcolm X after his death.

Different from an autobiography (primary source)
The Autobiography of Malcolm X : As told to Alex Haley (Author). Secondary Source: Biography Secondary Sources provide the interpretations, evaluations, or analysis of primary sources.

Secondary Sources are the second hand information produced or written about after an event has taken place.

Second-hand sources of information are created by someone with no first-hand experience or association with the events that you are researching. They discuss someone else’s experiences. What are Secondary Sources? Example of autobiography:

The Autobiography of Malcolm X : As told to Alex Haley (Author). Primary Sources: Autobiography Example of sound recording:
The “Fireside Chat” given by Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the U.S.

First Fireside Chat 1933
http://archive.org/details/1stFiresideChat1933 Primary Source: Sound Recordings Example of diary:
Diary of Anne Frank
The published diary of Anne Frank, a 13 year old Jewish girl and victim of the Holocaust during World War II detailing the events she and her family experienced during WWII. Primary Sources: Diaries Example of interview:
Interviews with John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the U.S., during his Presidential term, which were televised and rebroadcast on the radio. Transcripts are also available of the interview. Primary Source: Interviews LINK TO LETTERS: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?mreynoldsbib:4:./temp/~ammem_BwAY::
Example of Letters
Letters written by
Captain Tilton C. Reynolds, a member of the 105th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers (also known as the “Wild Cat Regiment”).

During the war, he sent many letters to his family detailing the events taking place during his tour in the Civil War. Primary Source: Letters Example 1: The photographs of the devastation and destruction occurring during and after Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

Example 2: The recorded news (live video) coverage and interviews with people about the events surrounding Hurricane Katrina.

They are both primary sources because they were taken during the time of the storm. Primary Sources:
Photographs and Videos Examples of speeches:
“I Have a Dream”, Martin Luther King Jr.
Spoken at the Civil Rights March at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., August 28, 1963.

President Barack Obama’s Inaugural Address speech
Delivered in front of United States Capitol on January 20, 2009
All U.S. Presidential Inaugural speeches Primary Source: Speeches Secondary Sources provide the interpretations, evaluations, or analysis of primary sources.

Secondary Sources are the second hand information produced or written about after an event has taken place.

Second-hand sources of information are created by someone with no first-hand experience or association with the events that you are researching. They discuss someone else’s experiences. What are Secondary Sources? I understand!
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