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Transcript of Economist-Malthus
Darwin Principle of Population Theory Influences Industrial
Revolution Malthus was from Britain
He was born in 1766 and died in 1834. Prior to 1750, agricultural practices were as they had been since the middle Ages. Great Britain was an agricultural society in which farmers worked long hours using simple tools to produce scanty crops. Using these tools and techniques, farmers were scarcely able to have a wealthy life. The mid-1700s saw a shift from an agricultural society to an industrial society as new farming practices and mechanization, the growing use of machines, reduced the number of workers needed to produce food for Europe's growing population. The Industrial Revolution radically transformed the economic structure of British society from a system of feudalism—a hierarchical system of lords and serfs that concentrated wealth at the top—to one of capitalism. Free enterprise and cost efficient machines caused factory owners, bankers, and entrepreneurs to gain significant wealth and power. The middle and upper classes prospered from the labors of the poor who filled the factories and toiled long hours for little pay. Malthus wrote about the struggle for survival and its relationship to the fact that the food supply is limited, but animals, if permitted by other circumstances, will continue to breed until there are too many for the available food, at which time they will compete for scarce resources. This got Darwin thinking about natural selection and the concept of biological fitness, and ultimately, to how natural selection, coupled with spontaneous mutations, could shape the characteristics of the survivors through succeeding generations, and how this could account for the diversity among the species and their evolution over sufficient periods of time. "In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic inquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favorable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ones to be destroyed. The results of this would be the formation of a new species. Here, then I had at last got a theory by which to work."
Charles Darwin, from his autobiography. (1876) Biography Thomas Malthus is....
- the first professional economist,
- founder of social demographer
- a clergyman It is the age of enlightenment, we rediscovered science and was having more progress of the society. Most people are being so optimistic that they thought we will improve forever-- we will be living in a utopian civilization! Demon??!! Thomas Malthus' last name is also the name of a demon. This demon "Malthus" is known as a prince of hell, and a commander. As described in demonology, he is known for sending troupes to war, and also building towers for ammunition and war purposes This may spark controversy
- May suggest a possible link between Thomas Malthus and Malthus the demon Possible Conspiracies Sprung
- May suggest he is a descendant of the demon Malthus
- Family name may have been a tribute to the demon
• Could have been from a satanic cultist family May suggest his quite extreme pessimism Thomas Malthus wrote this theory to contradict the optimistic beliefs of his dad and other economists as well. Stated that much of human population growth may lead to poverty Since there was no birth control, he states that human growth would go out of control, forcing us to use all of Earth's resources In result, the poor would become extremely poor as well, and the rich will be pushed down to middle class. He also states that all societies are subject to many other tragedies that cause problems in the economy. Some being:
- Epidemics Suggested a few solutions Positive Checks:
- Killing the excess human population to lessen effect of over population Preventive Checks:
- Preventing birth, or offering/enforcing ways to do so
- Abortion, birth control, etc Celibacy/Sexual Abstinence
- Further promoted this solution since he is quite the religious fellow
- Believed that one should only get married and have children when they are good and ready Believed another cause for poor economy may be the laws concerning the poor population "There is a difference between welfare and charity"
- Thomas Malthus Malthusian Catastrophe Born Into a English upper class family
Educated at Home 1776 1805 Enter Jesus College, Cambridge
A clergyman from 1793- 1804 1784-
1804 1824 one of the co-founders
of the Statistical Society of London
Died in December 28, 1834 1834 1821 FIRST professional economist
professor of history and political economy at the East India Company College became a member of the Political Economy Club
members included David Ricardo elected as one of the 10 royal associates
of the Royal Society of Literature iNFULUENCES:
- Family impact (landlord classes
- Economic Condition in Britain 1992 2002 1997 2007 2012 2017 Born Into an English upper class family
Landlord Classes 1766 1805 1784
-1804 elected a fellow of the Royal Society
elected as a member of the Political Economy Club
David Ricardo 1819-
1821 elected as 1 of the 10
royal associate of Royal Society
of Literature 1824 co-founders of the Statistical
Society of London
Dec. 28. 1834: died 1834 First professional economist
professor of history and political economy at the East India Company College Malthusian Catastrophe/Crisis/Disaster "The poor consequently must live much worse, and many of them be reduced to severe distress. The number of labourers also being above the proportion of the work in the market, the price of labour must tend toward a decrease, while the price of provisions would at the same time tend to rise. The labourer therefore must work harder to earn the same as he did before. " John Maynard
Keynes Keynesian Economics Work cited Landry, Peter. "Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834)." Thomas Robert Malthus. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Malthus.htm>. "Thomas Robert Malthus." : The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Liberty Fund.Inc, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Malthus.html>. "Thomas Malthus Time." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/malthus_thomas.shtml>. Dhamee, Yousuf. "Thomas Robert Malthus." Thomas Robert Malthus. N.p., 28 Aug. 2003. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.victorianweb.org/economics/malthus.html>. Collani, Claudia Von. Biography of Thomas Robert Malthus. N.p.: Stochastikon GmbH, n.d. Stochastikon GmbH. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. As a result, unemployed farmers migrated to the new industrial towns to seek employment in factories. Population growth will soon outpace agricultural production - Introduced more than two centuries ago
- Highlighted the potential dangers of overpopulation
- Foretold the problems of food shortage Bose, Debopriya. "Thomas Malthus Theory of Population." Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 10 July 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. "Thomas Malthus." Thomas Malthus. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2013 "The populations of the world would increase in geometric proportions while the food resources available for them would increase only in arithmetic proportions". ( Malthus) 1. Food is an essential component for human existence
2. Humans have the basic urge to multiply Population, Wages, and Inflation - Logical 18th century thinking -Assumed that humans
cannot control population
growth, did not take in
that will help food production
and control birth rates Malthusian Trap The Malthusian Trap ensures that gains in income per person through technological advances are inevitably lost through subsequent population growth IPAT Equation
I= P x A x T
Impact= Population x Affluence (Consumption per person) x Technology (Impact per unit of consumption Technological advancements and no Change in Quality of Life John Maynard Keyes(1883-1946), British Economist, Keynesian Economics
Hugely influenced by Thomas Malthus
Modeled his theories upon Malthus'
Maynard Keyes theories helped to shoot down the reform acts of the British PM in the 1950s Real-Life Applications Enter Jesus College, Cambridge
Elected as a fellow/clergyman
published "An essay on the principle of population" -Dismal economist
- Pessimistic theories Reform British PM wanted to pass reform for families that had more children
To be rewarded financially based on size of family
Vehemently opposed by economists notably Keyes Poor Law Amendment 1834, the poor law amendment was passed
Thomas Malthus played a significant role in passing it
purpose was to make sure that no able-bodied person was to receive money from Poor Law authorities modern Malthusianism is prevalent in popular culture!! Influence on Alfred Russel Wallace Co-Founder of Natural Selection
Compared to Charles Darwin Effects of the "Essay" most famous and popular essay was
"An Essay on the Principle of Population" Census as a result of the essay, there was a census taken in 1800 in Great Britain. Scotland and Wales
purpose is to determine true population A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens this novel represents the perceived ideas of Thomas Robert Malthus
illustrated by the main character(Ebenezer Scrooge) and how he did not want to donate money to the poorer working class
The quote "If they would rather die they had better do it, and decrease the surplus population" - Ebenezer Scrooge Brave New World by Aldous Hexley people regard fertility as a nuisance
in-vitro breeding has highlighted ability to control population
women carried contraceptives at all times just in case Cloud Atlas Wallace wallace said that Malthus' essay was one of the most important books that he ever read
Wallace thought that Malthus' theory showed that in animal kingdom only the tough survive while the weak dies.
-Natural Selection! movie set in the future
Tribute to Malthus in this movie in the form of a statue
shows the character of Malthus is ageless as both his theories and self last eternally Dickens, Charles (1845). A Christmas carol in prose. Bradword, Evans. p. 14. http://books.google.com/books?id=MlMHAAAAQAAJ.
Effects Today continues to resonate through social, political, and environmental issues
“It then occurred to me that these causes or their equivalents are continually acting in the case of animals also; and as animals usually breed much more quickly than does mankind, the destruction every year from these causes must be enormous in order to keep down the numbers of each species, since evidently
they do not increase regularly from year to year, as otherwise theworld would long ago have been crowded with those that breed most quickly.