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Referencing

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Sian Ponting

on 20 November 2017

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Transcript of Referencing

Developing Writing Skills: Referencing
Why do you need to reference?
To respect intellectual property.

To strengthen arguments by indicating the source of ideas.

To demonstrate knowledge of the field in which you are writing.

To establish your own voice in your academic writing.

To meet marking criteria.

To avoid accusations of plagiarism.

Background to Referencing
The Harvard Style is a British system.

Unlike other Reference Styles, there is no unique written manual on the Harvard Style.

Instead, a proliferation of websites offer slightly differing, often contradictory guidelines.

Be Consistent
Be Rigerous
Learning Outcomes
To Do...
Download the CU Harvard Referencing guide onto your memory stick or your hard drive on your laptop so that you have it handy to help you when writing and creating your reference lists.

Access this guide via:
student portal – online guides - Locate/Library – scroll down to referencing guides and select ‘CU Harvard Referencing style guide and glossary’


In-text Citations
Three of the main techniques for integrating sources into an academic argument:
Quoting
eg. (Brown 1999: 10-11)
Paraphrasing
eg. (Shah 2000: 7)
Summarising
eg. (Patel 2004)

What do each of these terms mean?
List of References
Your List of References must be in alphabetical order according to the author or corporate author of your sources.

The List of References goes on a separate page at the end of your document.

Notes to Self...
Use appropriate and meaningful evidence

Only use a direct quote if you cannot put it better yourself (or it relates to specific detail

Your evidence must flow within the paragraph and sentence – beware of the ‘floating quotation’

Try not to use evidence unproblematically- think critically about what you use

Don’t let the references do all the talking!

Consistency is key – just follow closely the rules provided in your handbook



The trouble with referencing...
Errors in referencing are very common, particularly in 1st year
Each institution has a specific way of referencing
Errors occur when students don't take the time to proof read, or pay specific attention to referencing
It isn't the most exciting part of writing an essay
It is time consuming
Errors in referencing affect your grades

Referencing Systems have 2 main Elements

in-text citations
each time you quote, paraphrase, summarise or critique a written, visual or auditory source or reproduce a visual source in the body of your document.


List
of the full reference details for each source you have cited.

Be Accurate
By the end of this session, students should be able to:
Understand why we reference
Effectively use CU Harvard Referencing Style
Explore the art of referencing
Always use the CU Harvard Referencing Style


use the guide to help you
Referencing Software
RefWorks
- allows a writer to enter information for a full reference only once, then add citations to that source. The programme will format and alphabetise the list of references in CU Harvard Reference Style.

Microsoft Word 2007, 2010
-
Referencing facility
- references formatted this way will need some manual changes to conform to CU Harvard Reference Style
'
sort’ function
in Microsoft Word can be used to alphabetise the List of References after it has been manually entered.



References entered using software will always need to be manually checked to ensure they conform with CU Harvard Style
Be ACCURATE about where each source comes from, including page numbers if you quote or paraphrase, or if you summarise information on a specific page of a source. Check that other readers can locate exactly the idea, image, or numerical data you have borrowed.
Be RIGOUROUS in checking that only each and every source you have cited is included in the List of References, and that the two elements are connected because they start with the same author and date.
Be CONSISTENT is the golden rule! Make sure you have followed the same procedure throughout your academic paper.
Top Tips for using direct Quotes
Only use a direct quote if you cannot put it better yourself (or it relates to specific detail)

Layouts
Use either double or single quotation marks and be consistent throughout your document!

Indent quotations longer than 40 words and do not use quotation marks. The indentation and citation at the end of the quote are enough to indicate that the passage is a quote.

To cite a source you have quoted:
The author's surname
The date the piece was written
the page number
(Brown 1999: 10-11)
A) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, these are the types of settings they will end up working in”

B) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, these are the types of settings they will end up working in (Davies, 2010).”

C) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, youth workers are being required to prioritise working with ‘young people in danger of dropping out of school, described as NEET (not in education, employment or training), involved in anti-social behaviour or using drugs or likely to become teenage parents”. (Davies, 2010: 13)

D) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, youth workers are being required to prioritise working with ‘young people in danger of dropping out of school, described as NEET (not in education, employment or training), involved in anti-social behaviour or using drugs or likely to become teenage parents” (Davies 2010: 13).

Which one of these is correct?
Socrative room DQ9YY2CF
A) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, these are the types of settings they will end up working in”

B) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, these are the types of settings they will end up working in (Davies, 2010).”

C) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, youth workers are being required to prioritise working with ‘young people in danger of dropping out of school, described as NEET (not in education, employment or training), involved in anti-social behaviour or using drugs or likely to become teenage parents”. (Davies, 2010: 13)

D) “It is essential that youth workers gain placement experience within ‘targeted’ youth work settings as, increasingly, youth workers are being required to prioritise working with ‘young people in danger of dropping out of school, described as NEET (not in education, employment or training), involved in anti-social behaviour or using drugs or likely to become teenage parents” (Davies 2010: 13).

A) Incorrect:
too short
no reference

B) Incorrect:
too short
no page
quotation marks outside reference (should be before).

C) Incorrect:
Full stop / punctuation is before reference (should be after)
Comma after authors name


D) CORRECT!

Top Tips for Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing means rephrasing a quotation, that is an idea expressed by a quotation, in your own words.

This is also a useful technique because it shows that you have filtered and understood the source.

To paraphrase an extract, read the source, take notes, and re-write the key idea from these.

Your paraphrase should be about the same length as the original extract.

To cite a source you have paraphrased:
author’s surname
the date
PAGE NUMBER.

(Shah 2000: 7)

Paraphrasing
Let it flow...
Your evidence must flow within the paragraph and sentence – beware of the ‘floating quotation’

Quoting must be accompanied by a statement of discussion, evaluation or critique at all times, rather than simply reproduced (or dumped) in the body of your writing.

Select your quotes with care, check they are relevant and that they fit in with the rest of the point(s) you are making.
Don't let your references do all the talking...
References support your your discussion, they are an integral part of it, but not all of it.
Summarising
This means writing a short précis of the source, whether an article, a chapter, a book or a section from any of these.

Summarising is the most useful method of integrating research because it reveals your judgement in selecting key points to discuss.

To summarise, select one or two key points from your source and explain how they relate to your own argument.

In-text citation:

To cite a source you have summarised:
author’s surname
the date

(Patel 2004)

Summarising
Use a mixture of quotes, paraphrasing, summarising and critiquing
Variety is the spice of life!
Can I cite more than one source in the same sentence?
Cite more than one author in the same sentence if they deal with the same topic or make similar points or use similar methods or evidence. List the sources in alphabetical order and separate each one with a comma.

Example:
Health informatics will radically change the nature of the National Health Service by the year 2010 (Brown 2002: 3, Lee 2006: 44, and Padda 2005: 14).

When do I use
'et al.'?
If there are more than three authors use ‘et al.’ which is short for ‘et alii’ meaning ‘and others’ in Latin.
Note that there is a full stop after ‘al.’ because it is an abbreviation (a shortened form of the original word).

A single source with more than three authors.
In-text = et al.
Reference List = give all authors

Example:
In-text = (Cox et al. 2004)
List = Cox, L., Ross, R., Lewis, E., and Cross, S. (2004)

What do I do if I can’t find at date?
STOP - is it an appropriate source?????
No - find another source
Yes - see below

For the purpose of accuracy, if you cannot find the date, it is best to write ‘n.d.’, which means ‘no date’.

Example:
Students are gaining increasingly high grades (National Student Forum n.d.).

What do I do if I can’t find the author’s name?

STOP - Is it an appropriate source?????
No - find another source
Yes - see below
Option 1
If the source is anonymous, you can write ‘Anon.’ instead of the author. Example:
For example: At the turn of the twentieth century, research in biology was influenced by scientific positivism (Anon. 1900).

Option 2
You can also give the corporate author or the title of the document instead of the author. Example:
For example: Occupy Wall Street movements in New York City have been using tactics of creative organising (Village Voice 2012)

When should I use or not use italics?
DO italicise:

For print publication (i.e., do not use bold or underline).
The titles of all the main documents must be italicised, such as titles of books, titles of journals, titles of websites, etc. so that readers can see at a glance which physical sources you have cited.
Example: Dickens wrote many novels, but
Hard Times
(Jones 2004: 16) is the most interesting from a philosophical perspective.
Put all foreign words in italics.

Common Queries for in-text citations
If in doubt, refer to your CU Havard Referencing Guide
DO NOT italicise:

For the title of journal articles or book chapters. Instead, use single quotation marks.
Example: Peterson’s recent article on oncology entitled ‘Meningioma Detection’ (2006) makes a real contribution to cancer research.
For quotes ! ! !

Abela, A., and La Rosa, M. S. (2007) ‘Maltese Youngsters with Very Challenging
Behaviour Speak about School’. Journal of Maltese Education
Research 5 (2), 62-85.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005) Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological
Perspectives on Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Conrad, P. and Barker, K. K. (2010) ‘The Social Construction of Illness: Key
Insights and Policy Implications’. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 51 (1), 67-79.

Indent the 2nd line
Referencing a book
Author's surname, initial. (year)
Title
. Place of Publication: Publisher
Crème, P. and Lea, M. R. (2003) Writing at University: A Guide for
Students. 2nd edn. Maidenhead: Open University

Referencing a Journal Article
Author's surname, initial. (year) 'Title of Article'.
Title of Journal
Volume, (issue number), all pages of the article
Hammill, B. A. (2007) ‘Teaching and Parenting: Who Are the
Members of Our Profession?’.
The Journal of the Conference on College Composition and Communication
59 (1), 98-124

Referencing a Journal Article - online access
Author's surname, initial. (year) 'Title of Article'.
Title of Journal
[online] Volume, (issue number), all pages of the article. Available from <URL> [date accessed]
Barkley, R. A. (1997) ‘Behavioural Inhibition, Sustained Attention,
and Executive Functioning: Constructing a Unified Theory of ADHD’.
Psychological Bulletin
[online] 121 (1), 65-94. avaliable from <http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=4c51f8ce-838e-4f9abd88-43a29cd8a130%40sessionmgr115&vid=0&hid=115&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=1997-02112-004&db=pdh> [02 November 2015]
Referencing a Website
Corporate author/ author (year last updated)
Webpage Title
[online] available from <URL> [date accessed]
Gov.UK (12 August 2015)
Age of criminal responsibility
[online] availbale from <https://www.gov.uk/age-of-criminal-responsibility> [2 November 2015]
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