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The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

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Francis Marojevic

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
Global warming!
Global warming is the increase of the Earth's average surface temperature due to the effect of Greenhouse Gases such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which would trap heat that would otherwise escape the Earth. This is a type of Greenhouse Effect.
How does the GHE lead to Global Warming
How does the green house effect occur naturally? Well, essentially what happens is a short wave length of incoming radiation enters the Earth's atmosphere from the Sun. Some of this is re-emitted from the surface as a long wave length radiation and this leads to heat being lost into space. The rest of the incoming radiation is reflected to the Earth and is absorbed by Greenhouse gases. These then reflect the radiation back towards Earth. As a result of their absorption, the mean temperature increases.

As the concentration in carbon dioxide increases, radiation absorption becomes higher, resulting in more radiation being re-reflected back to Earth. This in turn increases the mean temperature even more. This is the Greenhouse Effect and by the increase of mean temperature, the globe begins to warm up.
What is the Enhanced GHE
The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect occurs basically upon the actions of human activities. Such actions include the burning of fossil fuels. As a result, the amount of green house gases in the atmosphere increases and the radiation absorbed by the atmosphere rises. The total amount of energy leaving the Earth reduces and the mean temperature increases.
Why do people confuse the Enhanced GHE with problems of the Ozone layer?
People may get these two concepts confused as they may think they both have to do with global warming. The GHE has a contribution to this issue of global warming however the ozone layer has to do with the amount of UV rays that must enter the atmosphere.
Greenhouse Effect
Traps infrared radiation by the Earth

Main cause of global warming


Ozone layer
Responsible for reflecting the suns UV rays

CFC is the only gas involved

UV rays let in are re radiated by the Earth
Contributed to by human activities
Have negative effects
Can't be prevented just moderated
Water Vapour - H2O
This Greenhouse Gas is most significant as it is not something that is directly produced by humankind in large amounts.

The small amounts of water in the upper atmosphere (not clouds which are condensed water vapour) has a significant effect.

Makes up 60% of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

Water vapour is produced by the Sun's heat emissions. It can also be produced from power plants releasing large quantities of steam into the air as a by-product of the breakdown on methane

Most abundant Greenhouse Gas
Carbon Dioxide- CO2
391 ppm of Carbon Dioxide is present in the Earth's atmosphere

CO2 tends to remain in the atmosphere for a very long time (time scaled in the hundreds of years).

Combustion releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, however plants, as long as they are growing, will remove it through the process photosynthesis. (Carbon fixation)

Both Man made and naturally produced.
Methane- CH4
Is the principle component of natural gas and the product of decay, decomposition and fermentation.

There are less Methane molecules than Carbon. Although it is more capable of absorbing thermal energy.

Some organisms produce methane naturally. Methane can produced through human activity, such as the extraction of coal and garbage decomposition.

Methane is formed when organic matter decomposes in the absence of oxygen.

Contributes 7.199% to Greenhouse gases
Nitrous Oxide- N20
Live stock and industry such as the production of nylon are major sources of nitrous oxide which has a significant effect as it remains in the upper atmosphere for long periods.

Makes up 19.00 % of the Greenhouse gases in the Earth's Atmosphere
These molecules are 300 times more effective as a greenhouse gas than a CO2 molecule.

Nitrous oxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth's nitrogen cycle

The concentration of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere has risen from about 270 parts per billion in pre-industrial times to about 319 parts per billion now.
How can countries limit global warming?
Less efficient power plants should be replaced. This would mean in order to produce the same amount of power, it would require less fuel, resulting in reduced CO2 emission.

There should be an increased use of renewable energy sources and nuclear power. Replacing fossil fuels with alternative forms such as wave power, solar power and wind power would decrease the release of CO2 into the air

Use of Geothermal Energy- Cost effective and it is created within the earth from natural activity. Energy created in this manner is just there - It does not require the destruction or use of material like coal or oil which is finite and must burn to create energy.

Technological advances:
Greater efficiency in power production
Decarbonised exhaust gases from power plants
Advanced power generation technologies, such as Supercritical and Ultra-Supercritical power generation technologies, provide more energy efficient systems for power generation from coal

PROFILE OF EACH GH GAS
How it looks!
The increase of CO2 is due to human activity
This hypothesis can be supported by the graph shown on the right.
Carbon Dioxide- CO2
391 ppm of Carbon Dioxide is present in the Earth's atmosphere

CO2 tends to remain in the atmosphere for a very long time (time scaled in the hundreds of years).

Combustion releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, however plants, as long as they are growing, will remove it through the process photosynthesis. (Carbon fixation)

Both Man made and naturally produced.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/people_and_the_environment/global_warming_and_climate_change/science/australia_greenhouse_gases/

http://www.co2crc.com.au/aboutccs/greenhouse_gases.html

http://www.climatechange.gov.au/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-measurement-and-reporting/tracking-australias-greenhouse-gas-emissions

http://www.climatekelpie.com.au/understand-climate/climate-change-science/greenhouse-gases-we-cant-live-without-them

http://www.omicspublishinggroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/greenhouse-effect.jpg

http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/images/2010/Nov/america-falling-apart-4.gif

http://www.grida.no/images/series/vg-climate/large/5.jpg

ITS A HOT TOPIC!
Inclusion of smaller GHG
How I can reduce global warming
Replace plastic water bottles with a reusable one: This decreases the amount of trash in landfills, which contributes to carbon dioxide and methane gases in the atmosphere

Plant a Tree: A single tree will absorb a ton of CO2 over its lifetime.

Reduce car emissions

Reduce energy expenditure in your home

Choose renewable power

Share these strategies with those around you
Full transcript