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5 Canons of Rhetoric

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Cassie Shimek

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of 5 Canons of Rhetoric

5 Canons of Rhetoric
Canon 2: Arrangement
Arrangement represents the step of giving order to a speech to create its "form."
Canon 3: Style
In the third canon, writers and speakers make choices regarding words, phrases, and sentences. Conscious choice about stylistic decisions in writing and speaking can help to reflect themselves, communicate meaning, and influence the audience.

2 kinds of style:
Formal style - the overall tone and feel of the speech in its totality.
Figurative style - represents specific elements of the speech designed to capture the attention and seduce the ear of the audience.
Canon 4: Memory
The ability to memorize a text and to reproduce it in a manner that seems natural rather than artificial.

Various combinations and strategies for memorization:
1. Read the speech out loud.
2. Practice with your whole body (walk around instead of sitting).
3. Record and listen to yourself.
4. Break the speech into parts.
5. Use graphic conceptualization (draw speech into a diagram).
6. Identify key points.
7. Take breaks.

Canon 1: Invention
Finding credible and respected SOURCES (websites, newspapers, magazines, journals, books, government documents, etc.) will help to persuade your audience.

Need to develop a concrete goal, or SPECIFIC PURPOSE, as well as something to say to achieve that goal, or a THESIS.
Specific purpose answers "What is this speech trying to do?"
Thesis answers "What is this speech trying to say?"
In the canon of invention, a writer or speaker is looking for a starting point—how to come up with what he or she wants to write or speak about.

Invention is the art of finding and developing material, which you will have to do for each of your speeches.
Resources for Invention
Public memory
Social knowledge
Maxims
Facts
Statistics
Testimony
Examples
Narratives
Topics (specific ways of placing material)
Definition
Division
Comparison
Relationship
Impact on New Orleans:
80% of the city flooded after levees failed.

The population of New Orleans fell from 484,674 in April 2000 to 230,172 in July 2006, a decrease of over 50%.
By 2012, the population has increased to 369,250.

Hurricane Katrina is the costliest disaster in the history of the global insurance industry
On September 8, a Category 4 hurricane ripped through Galveston, killing an estimated 6,000 to 8,000 people. A 15-foot storm surge flooded the city, which was then situated at less than 9 feet above sea level, and numerous homes and buildings were destroyed
The word "hurricane" comes from Hurican,
the Carib god of evil.


Introductions
Should arouse some desire in the audience to hear the remainder of the speech
Functions:
Capture the audience's attention
State topic of the speech and purpose
Relate the topic to your audience
Set a tone
Preview main points
Provide a transition to the body of the speech.
Main Points
They are the most important claims made by the speech that are intended to support the main thesis.
Basic ways of structuring main points:
Chronological
Geographical
Cause-Effect
Pro-Con
Topical
Problem-Solution
Comparative Advantage

Transitions, signposts, internal previews, and internal summaries are required in ALL of your speeches. They let the audience know the speaker is moving through the speech.

Conclusion:
The purpose is to satisfy an audience's desires and make them feel as if the speech has come together as a whole.
Functions:
Summarize main points
Help the audience remember the speech
Leave with a call to action
Clearly end your speech
End on a positive note.
Outlining:
Allows for you to organize the "highlights" of a speech into sections and put them into linear progression of beginning, middle, and end.
Working outline - tentative plan for the speech that allows for changes. AKA Keyword outline

Final outline - represents the last stage of your speech preparations. AKA Full sentence outline.
Figures & Tropes
Figures – series of signs designed to produce emotional interpretants based on an appeal to the ear.
Parallelism
Antithesis
Alliteration
Epistrophe
Repetition

Tropes - series of signs designed to produce complex logical interpretants based on appeal to the mind.
Metaphor
Synecdoche
Metonymy
Irony
Simile
Personification
Hyperbole
Oxymoron
Paradox
Visual Aids
Using an image to more effectively convey a specific idea or emotion.
Perform 2 major functions:
1. They simplify complex information that otherwise could not effectively be explained.
2. They graphically visualize an event, object, person, or process whose details are necessary for understanding a speech.
Spoken Citation Style
It is vital not only to acquire but to cite and quote accurate sources to give yourself credibility.
"According to_____" (always include in-text citation)
"Betty Smith stated _____" (always include in-text citation)
"Paraphrase the information" (always include in-text citation)
You can use APA or MLA citation guidelines
Canon 5: Delivery
Delivery refers to how a speaker physically performs the speech. It differs from style because it deals with the actual speaking rather than the words that are spoken.



Components of Delivery:

Appearance - dress business casual
Gesture - pay attention to body movements
Position - body orientation
Eye contact - make sure to vary eye contact
Articulation - do not mumble!
Pronunciation - if you can't pronounce it, then don't include it!
Dialect - used to create identification
Pitch - vary pitch to avoid being monotone.
Volume - use appropriate volume
Pauses - use to add emphasis/punctuation
Rate - how quickly you speak.
Speaking Anxiety
The pressure that accompanies delivery leads many people to have speaking anxiety that is sometimes difficult to overcome.
Strategies for dealing with speaking anxiety:
Nervousness is natural.
Everyone experiences it.
You appear more relaxed than you feel.
Have something important to say.
Visualize success.
Release tension before speaking.
The audience is usually on your side.
Practice, practice, PRACTICE.

Experience makes you more confident.
Systematic and clinical treatments include:
Systematic desensitization.
Cognitive modification.
COM therapy.
Visualization.
Skills training.
Performance feedback.

Delivery Forms ;
Manuscript - requires having every word of a speech written out and delivering it as is. Ex. teleprompter

Memory - delivering from memory is to write a manuscript first and then rehearse it until you know it by heart.

Impromptu - to speak without preparation on a subject given to you at the moment.

Extemporaneous - essential feature is the notecard, which includes key points, quotes, and transitions drawn froma larger outline but leaves the speaker to fill in the gaps during the actual delivery of the speech.
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