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MAX WEBER- BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATION
Transcript of MAX WEBER- BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATION
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
MAX WEBER (1864-1920)
CLASSICAL PERSPECTIVE OF MANAGEMENT
He constructed a "rational-legal authority" model of an ideal type bureaucracy.
Belief in the "legality" of patterns of normative rules and the right of those elevated to authority to issue commands (legal authority- hierarchy).
Weber created the rules and regulations of a bureaucracy to protect its members against the possibility of personal favoritism.
Max Weber, created the bureaucracy theory of management, which focuses on the theme of
expertise for an organization as a whole.
Weber's theory also focuses on
clear roles in an organization,
meaning that management in organizations can run as effectively as possible with
bureaucracy as possible.
Weber focused on the idea of a bureaucracy, which differs from a traditional managerial organization because workers are judged by impersonal, rule-based activity with promotion based on merit and performance and not on immeasurable qualities.
EXAMPLE: The modern "flat" organization, which promotes as few managerial levels as possible between management and employees.
Born in Germany in 1864, Max Weber was a
child. He went to university and became a professor, but suffered a mental breakdown in 1897 that left him unable to work for five years. In 1905 he published his most famous work,
The Protestant Ethic
Spirit of Capitalism
. He returned to teaching in 1918 and died in 1920. He is considered the father of modern sociology.
EXAMPLE THEORY- Max Weber's "Spirit of Capitalism"
Capitalism developed in northwest Europe because river systems led to the development of independent city-states and the growth of a strong merchant class.
WEBERIAN MODEL: BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
A WELL-DEFINED HIERARCHY
A bureaucracy is set up with clear chains of command so that everyone has a boss. At the top of the organization is a chief who oversees the entire bureaucracy. Power flows downward.
All positions within a bureaucracy are structured in a way permitting the higher positions to supervise and control the lower positions. This provides a clear chain of command facilitating control and order throughout the organization.
Bureaucrats specialize in one area of the issue their agency covers. This allows efficiency because the specialist does what he or she knows best, then passes the matter along to another specialist.
All responsibilities in an organization are rationalized to the point where each employee will have the necessary expertise to master a particular task.
DIVISION OF LABOUR
Each task is broken down into smaller tasks, and different people work on different parts of the task.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES- RULES AND REGULATIONS
Also called formalized rules, SOP informs workers about how to handle tasks and situations. All organizational activities should be rationalized to the point where standard operating procedures are developed to provide certainty and facilitate coordination.
Everybody always follows the same procedures to increase efficiency and predictability so that the organization will produce similar results in similar circumstances.
SOP can sometimes make bureaucracy move slowly because new procedures must be developed as circumstances change.
Real life example-->
Moe's catering line
Division of labor: Each task is broken down into smaller tasks, and different people work on different parts of the task.
Max Weber identified one of the most important components of social change-
A LEADER WITH CHARISMA.
Weber broadened the term "charismatic" by incorporating it into the field of sociology.
influenced to investigate conflict through the experience of his parents marital conflicts.
Weber's interest in organizations evolves from his view of the institutionalization of power and authority in the modern Western world.
Leaders are characterized by
large vision, magnetic style, and strong popular support.
Leaders have strong aspects of
extraordinary, superhuman and supernatural character.
Weber feels it is absolutely essential for a bureaucracy to maintain complete files regarding all its activities.
This advances an organizational "memory" where accurate and complete documents will be available concerning all bureaucratic actions and determinations.
Competence should be the basis for all decisions made in hiring, job assignments, and promotions.
This would eliminate personal bias and the significance of "knowing someone" in central personnel decisions.
This fosters ability and merit as the primary characteristics of a bureaucratic organization.
Weber believes it is necessary for managers to maintain an impersonal relationship with the employees because of the need to have a rational decision making process rather than one influenced by favoritism and personal prejudice.
This organizational atmosphere would also facilitate rational evaluation of employee outcomes where personal prejudice would not be a dominant consideration.
IMPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES
Basically, Weber's principles of bureaucratic organization include:
An organizational hierarchy
Management by rules/structure-
Organization by functional specialty- Selecting employees based on their technical skills and qualifications for a specific task
An "up-focused" (board/stakeholders) or "in-focused" (organization itself) mission.
Impersonal environment- rules and structure are the same for everyone.
Provides organization and structure.
Increases efficiency of organization's performance and mission.
Those who work were selected for their skills/ ability to master a specific task- increases efficiency and effectiveness of organization.
Same rules and structure for everyone involved- fair/equal treatment- reflects positively on both the organization and the stakeholders involved.
is a complex means of managing life in social institutions that includes rules and regulations, patterns, and procedures that are designed to simplify the functioning of complex organizations.
Setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action through administrative or hierarchical techniques such as creating policies.
•An example of bureaucracy would be the forms used to pay one's income taxes.
They require specific information and procedures to fill them out. Included in those form, however, are countless rules and laws that dictate what can and can't be tied into one's taxes.
NOTE: Bureaucracy simplifies the process of paying one's taxes by putting the process into a formulaic structure, but always complicates it by adding rules and regulations that govern the procedure.
EXAMPLE: BUREAUCRATIC OFFICER
An ideal bureaucratic officer is personally free and appointed to his position on the basis of conduct & his technical qualification for the job. He exercises the authority delegated to him in accordance with impersonal rules, and his or her loyalty is enlisted on behalf of the faithful execution of his official duties. Administrative work would be his full-time career and work is rewarded by a regular salary and prospects of advancement in a lifetime career. A bureaucratic officer need to exercise his own judgment and skills, but his duty is to be place these at the service of a higher bureaucratic officer, who follows the same rule, place the product of his judgment and skills to the next higher officer and so on