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Standard First Aid

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by

Mathieu Buttazzoni

on 29 June 2011

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Transcript of Standard First Aid

Standard First Aid & CPR-C Goals of First Aid Introduction Legal Implications Universal Precautions Anatomy and Physiology of ABC's Primary Assessments Scene Survey ABC's, Major Bleeding, Mechanism of Injury preserve life prevent further injury promote recovery Good Samiritan Act Designed to reduce bystander hesitation in an emergency The Good Samaritan Act protects you unless you are NEGLIGENT Duty of Care When you start first aid you now have a duty to care for that person. You cannot stop until a more qualified person takes over. Standard of care was not met You didn't perform first aid properly or went beyond your level of training The standard of care is what a reasonable person with similar training would do in similar circumstances Causation The damages caused were your fault Requires proof that your act or omission caused the damages The first priority is your safety! Airway includes: nose mouth pharynx (throat) larynx (voice box or Adam's apple) trachea Air you breathe in - 21% oxygen Air you breathe out - 16% oxygen Shock is a depression of the body's ciculatory system Expect shock in ALL first aid situations Symptoms of shock Pale, cool, clammy skin Restlessness, weakness Fear, anxiety Confusion, disorientation Weak, rapid pulse Shallow, rapid respiration Blue colored lips and fingernails (cyanosis) Treatment Warmth ABCs Rest and reassurance Treatment Semi-prone position W.A.R.T.S. !! Legal Implications Goals of First Aid Universal Precautions Shock Anatomy and Physiology of ABCs Assessement of environment for hazards Establish unresponsiveness Activate EMS Attempt to obtain AED Open airway Check breathing: look listen feel for 10 seconds Landmark and chest compressions (30:2) If victim begins to move? Reassess ABCs and treat appropriately Consent must be gained before beginning first aid. It is assumed if person is unconscious. Identify yourself as first aider even to unconscious victims A-A-A-ABC A - Area (scene survey) A- Awake (level of consciousness) A - Ambulance A - Airway B- Breathing C- Circulation (includes bleeding) Secondary Assessement Relevant history S.A.M.P.L.E Sign & Symptoms Allergies Medications Past medical history Last meal/ doctors visit Events leading up Taking and recording vital signs Respirations Pulse Skin color/ temperature P.E.A.R.L. Pupils equal and reactive to light Head to toe examination Note the rate, regularity and rhyth of breathing Check pulse rate (60 - 100 is normal for adults; 80-100 for children; and 100 - 150 for infants) Rhythm (regular or irregular) Quality (strong or weak) Assess diagnostic signs - eyes (PEARL) - ability to move - reaction to pain Obstructed Airway (adult & child) Start: 1. Assessment of degree of obstruction by asking "are you choking?" 2. Select one of 2 appropriate procedures Mild Obstruction Encourage coughing Reassurance of victim Severe Obstruction Shout for help Landmark for chest thrusts Repeated abdominal thursts until airway is clear If successful, advise victim to see doctor to rule out any complications Obstructed airway (infant) Assessment of degree of choking 5 back blows and 5 chest thursts repeated until effective or infant is unconscious Advise to seek medical help to rule out complications if successful EMS contact When do you call EMS? Must provide the 4 W's who, why, what, where CPR Primary Assessment (A-A-A-ABC) A B (Whats wrong here?) C 2 breaths 30 compressions to 2 breaths Duty of care When can you stop performing CPR? If successful remember to REASSESS ABCs Compress 1/3 to 1/2 depth of body Unconscious obstructed airway A-A-A-ABCs If breath doesn't go in, reposition head and try again If second breath still won't go in, begin CPR Almost the same as CPR! Differences: After your 30 compressions check for object. Repeat! If you're alone, do 5 cycles before calling EMS Brief intro to AEDs 2 Rescuer CPR Rescuer 1 Regular A-A-A-ABC sequence Rescuer 2 Approach scene and identify yourself as CPR trained Switch roles every 5 cycles to minimize fatigue Continue until EMS arrives or AED is brought on scene Respiratory and Circulatory Emergencies Hyperventilation Asthma Heart attack and angina Stroke/ TIA SHOCK Treatment: External bleeding R-rest E - elevate D - direct pressure Check circulation below bandage to make sure it isn't too tight! Internal Bleeding Signs and symptoms Rigid spot on abdomen Pain Shock Treatment Maintain ABCs Treat for shock Get EMS soon as possible Nose Bleeds Pinch nose Apply ice to forehead or back of neck Contact EMS if bleeding won't stop after a few minutes Bone and Joint injuries R- Rest I - Immobilize C- Cold E - Elevate Environmental Emergencies Heat 3 types of heat emergencies Heat cramp - loss of salt Heat exhaustion - caused by dehydration Heat stroke - shock Cold Frost bite Pain Altered sensation White area on skin So what to do? Remove from cold Reheat slowly Dropping of body temp below 35 degrees C Vicitim will be shivering in initial stages Loss of muscle coordination Decreased level of consciousness Shock and fatigue Treatment Remember priorities in any situation: A-A-A-ABCs If stable, remove from cold, warm gradually and treat for shock Spinals, Head/Face injuries & Seizures Spinals Signs and Symptoms Pain at site of trauma Loss of sensation in lower extremities Bruising, swelling or bleeding at trauma site Shock What to do 1. Recognize you're dealing with a spinal injury 2. Maintain immobilization and go through A-A-A-ABCs 4. Conscious vicitim is reassured and directed not to move 3. Treat unconscious victim like any other unconscious victim 5. Wait for EMS * always check circulation above and below injury Head Injury Treatment 1. A-A-A-ABCs 2. Immobilize spine if necessary 3. Bandage any bleeding 4. Monitor vitals and treat with injured side down Facial Injury Foreign body in ear or nose Laceration or contusion of eye Chemical splashes in eye Puncture of eye Burns to eye Bleeding and fluid from ear Loose or broken tooth Nose bleed Broken nose Seizures Natural response to trauma Secondary Assessement Relevant history Taking and recording vital signs Head to toe check Seizure Result from abnormal neuron firing in the brain Can be brought on by several things such as lack of sleep medication flashing lights drug or alcohol abuse fever head injury stroke 4 ways poison may enter the body - injected (drug abuse, insect sting) - absorbed (lead) - inhaled (gases, drug abuse) - ingested (food, drug abuse) Treatment 1. Like always start with A-A-A-ABCs 2. Determine cause of poisoning and collect sample if possible 3. Avoidance of exposure to poison 4. Get treatment instruction from EMS 5. Maintain ABCs Hypoglycemia (not enough suger) Hyperglycemia (too much sugar) Hypo Pale, cool, clammy skin Confusion, disorientation Shallow, rapid respiration Hyper Flushed, dry skin Drowsiness to unconsciousness Excessive thirst and urination Acetone smell on breath Treatment is same for both. Give sugar! Contact EMS if victim goes unconscious or if they don't improve after sugar. However, if they have insulin help them take it. Abdominal or chest injury Pneumothorax Broken ribs Flail chest Not much you can do until help arrives so treat for shock Burns Treatment A-A-A-ABCs Remove victim from source of injury Run cool water over injury (except 3rd degree) Cover with clean dressing Wet Chemical burns Dry chemical burns Electrical burns Flush with lots of water Dust before flushing with water Check for entry and exit burns, immobilize affected limbs
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