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Chapter 12: Cross-Cultural Exchange on the Silk Roads
Transcript of Chapter 12: Cross-Cultural Exchange on the Silk Roads
Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia Chapter 12
Cross-Cultural Exachange on the silk roads Jackie Mike Bennett Ha'ani Jarred Dana Calvin Ednalynn Chris Held by Xiongnu for years
Told Han Wudi of possibility of establishing trade relations to Bactria
Han Wudi subdued Xiongnu, opening up region to safe trade routes A. Zhang Qian’s mission to the west I. Long-Distance trade and the silk roads network I. Long-Distance trade and the silk roads network B. Trade networks of the Hellenistic era Important developments of the classical era that reduced risks Rulers invested in constructing roads and bridges
Large empires expanded until borders were closer Trade netwrks of the Hellenistic world Exchanges between India/Bactria in east and Mediterranean basin in west
Ptolemies learned about the monsoon system in Indian Ocean
Maritime trade included East Africa--Rhapta I. Long-Distance trade and the silk roads network B. Trade networks of the Hellenistic era I. Long-distance trade and the silk roads network A. Zhang Qian's Mission to the west
B. Trade Networks of the Hellenistic Era
C. The Silk Roads II. Cultural and Biological exchanges along the silk roads A. The Spread of Buddhism and Hinduism
B. The Spread of Christianity
C. The Spread of Manichaeism; Best Example of Religion Spread on Silk Roads
D. The Spread of Epidemic Disease I. long-distance trade and the silk roads network C. The Silk Roads Trade Routes Overland trade routes linked China to Roman empire
Sea lanes joined Asia, Africa, and Mediterranean basin into one network Trade Goods Silk and spices traveled west
Central Asia produced large horses and jade, sold in China
Roman empire provided glassware, jewelry, artworks, perfumes, textiles C. The Silk Roads I. Long-Distance trade and the silk roads network I. Long-distance trade and the silk roads network C. The Silk Roads The Organization of Long-Distance Trade Merchants of different regions handled long-distance trade in stages
On the seas, long-distance trade was dominated by different empires II. Cultural and biological exchanges along the silk roads A. The Spread of Buddhism and Hinduism First present in oasis towns of central Asia along silk roads
Further spread to steppe lands
Foreign merchants as Buddhists in China, first century B.C.E.
Popularity of monasteries and missionaries, fifth century C.E. II. Cultural and biological exchanges along the silk roads B. The Spread of Christianity Christianity in the Mediterranean Basin Missionaries, like Gregory the Wonderworker, attracted converts
Christian communities flourished in Mediterranean basin by late third century C.E. Christianity in Southwest Asia follows the trade routes B. The Spread of Christianity II. Cultural and Biological Exchanges Along the Silk Roads Sizable communities in Mesopotamia and Iran, second century C.E.
Sizable number of converts in southwest Asia until the seventh century C.E.
Their ascetic practices influenced Christian practices in the Roman empire
Nestorians emphasized human nature of Jesus, fifth century C.E.
Nestorian communities in central Asia, India, and China by seventh century C.E. C. The Spread of Manichaeism; Best Example of Religion Spread on Silk Roads Mani and Manichaeism Prophet Mani, a Zoroastrian, drew influence from Christianity and Buddhism
Dualism: perceived a cosmic struggle between light and darkness, good and evil
Offered means to achieve personal salvation
Ascetic lifestyle and high ethical standards
Differentiation between the "elect" and the "hearers" C. The Spread of Manichaeism; Best Example of Religion Spread on Silk Roads Spread of Manichaeism; Appealed to Merchants
Persecuted by Sasanids and Romans but survived in Central Asia Attracted converts first in Mesopotamia and east Mediterranean region
Appeared in all large cities of Roman empire, third century C.E. II. Cultural and biological exchanges along the silk roads II. Cultural and biological exchanges along the silk roads D. The Spread of Epidemic Disease Epidemic Diseases
Effects of Epidemic Diseases Common epidemics in Rome and China: smallpox, measles, bubonic plague
Roman Empire: population dropped by a quarter from the first to tenth century C.E.
China: population dropped by a quarter from the first to seventh century C.E. Both Chinese and Roman economies contracted
Small regional economies emerged
Epidemics weakened Han and Roman empires III. China after the Han Dynasty A. Internal Decay of the Han State III. China After the Han Dynasty A. Internal Decay of the Han State
B. Cultural Change in Post-Han China IV. The Fall of the Roman Empire A. Internal Decay in the Roman Empire
B. Germanic Invasions and the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
C. Cultural Change in the Late Roman Empire Thank you for you attention...
this concludes our featured presentation!!
GOOD NIGHT!! :) Problems of factions and land distribution led to rebellions
Generals usurped political authority; the emperor became a puppet III. China After the han Dynasty B. Cultural Change in Post-Han China Gradual sinicization of nomadic peoples
Withering of Confucianism in light of political instability
Popularity of Buddhism; nomadic rulers embraced it Cultural change in post-Han China IV. the Fall of the Roman empire A. Internal Decay in the Roman Empire The barracks emperors: series of generals seizing throne (235-284 C.E.
The emperor Diocletian (284-305 C.E.)
The emperor Constantine and new capital Constantinople Divided the empire into two administrative districts
A co-emperor ruled each district with the aid of a powerful lieutenant IV. the fall of the roman empire B. Germanic Invasion and the Fall of the Western Empire Germanic migrations from northern Europe to eastern and northern part of Roman empire
The Huns under Attila attacked Europe mid-fifth century C.E. II. Cultural and Biological exchanges alond the silk roads By 220 C.E., generals abolished the Han and divided the empire into three kingdoms
Nomadic peoples came in; China became even more divided for 350 years Visigoths--settled agriculturalists; adopted Roman law and Christianity
Roman authorities kept Germanic peoples on the borders as a buffer Under the Huns' pressure, Germanic peoples streamed into the Roman empire
Established settlements in Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and north Africa
Germanic general Odovacer deposed the Roman emperor, 476 C.E.
Imperial authority survived in the eastern half of the empire The collapse of the western Roman empire B. Germanic invasions and the fall of the western Roman empire IV. The Fall of the Roman Empire IV. The Fall of the Roman Empire C. Cultural Change in the Late Roman Empire With Constantine's Edict of Milan, Christianity became a legitimate religion, 313 C.E.
Emperor Theodosius proclaimed Christianity the official religion, 380 C.E.
St. Augustine harmonized Christianity with Platonic thought Christianity most prominent Survivor of the collapse of the Empire IV. The fall of the roman Empire C. Cultural Change in the Late Roman Empire Conflicting doctrines and practices among early Christians
Established standardized hierarchy of church officials
The bishop of Rome, known as the pope, became spiritual leader
As Roman empire collapsed, Christianity served as a cultural foundation The Church became increasingly institutionalized