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Transcript of Ancient Greece
Common Physical Features of City-States
Alexander the Great
Two Eras of Greece:
1. Archaic or Ancient Greece
2. Classical or Hellenic Greece--The word "Hellenic" means "Greek-speaking."
Information about these eras is obtained from Herodotus (Father of History) and Thucydides (another important historian).
1. Small Size
2. Small Population--5,000-10,000 citizens that made direct democracy possible. Athens was the exception--it had more than 10,000 citizens.
3. The original POLIS--The Polis stood on an ACROPOLIS--hill or mountain together with temples and public buildings.
4. Public meeting place--AGORA (marketplace) where people met together.
1. Greek Language--spoken in many dialects over a wide area.
2. Worship of the same gods in basically the same manner.
3. Participation in three Pan-Hellenic cult centers: Olympia, Delphi, Delos
4. The Illiad, the Odyssey and other poems of the "Epic" cycle--this was a look at their heroic past.
5. The veneration of Pan-Hellenic heroes, especially Heracles
Came to power in 336 B.C. when his father was murdered.
Alexander's Hellenistic Empire plan:
1. Found new cities and rebuild old ones as cultural centers
2. Merge the Macedonians and Persians as one ruling group
3. Wanted his subjects to think of him as a divine monarch--a god-king
Conquered city-states from Egypt to India and built the largest empire that the world had ever known.
Died in Babylon from an unknown illness in 323 B.C. without an heir.
His empire was divided between his generals into
3. Syria(Asia Minor & Mesopotamia)--Seleucus
PERSIAN WARS--546 B.C.-479 B.C.
Revolts and rebellions broke out when Cyrus (of Persia) conquered some Greek city-states and forced Greeks to pay tribute. Those revolts were aided by Athens. Lasted until 479 B.C.
Clash was inevitable between Greece and Persia.
1. Persian control in Asia Minor
2. They blocked the entrance to the Hellespont which kept Athenians from the Black Sea area
3. Competition with trade in the Aegean Sea
Cyrus--546 B.C.--conquered the Greek city-states on the western side of Asia Minor.
Darius--492 B.C.--Cyrus' son easily put down revolts, but wanted to punish Athens. He sent a Persian army and fleet toward Greece and a storm broke out and destroyed the fleet. In 490 B.C., he launched another attack, but the Athenian army drove them out.
Xerxes--480 B.C.--Darius' son attacked again with fleet and army and had marched down Trace and Macedonia. They marched through the narrow mountain pass of Thermopylae and were met by King Leonidas of Sparta. Sparta was betrayed by traitors and gave the Persians a secret pass; they surrounded the Spartans and killed every one. Xerxes went on to destroy Athens.
**Greek general Themistocles tricked Xerxes into attacking the Athenian fleet in the Strait of Salamis. The Greek ships were small and easily to maneuver and they rammed and sunk the large ungainly Persian ships. In 479 B.C., Xerxes was defeated. He committed suicide.
Early Greeks established city-states because of the geography of Greece and the tribal organization.
POLIS--Greek word for city-state. Means "fort"
CHORA--Area surrounding the city-state
3/4 of the Land is Mountains
All parts of the mainland was sea-accessible, and it had good harbors.
Minoans & Mycenaeans
SPARTA vs. ATHENS
Civilization on the island of Crete. The remains of it was found by Arthur Evans in 1898. The Greek myths had told of the civilization, but it wasn't found until then. Used the sea for their livelihood and were great traders. It is believed that they were destroyed by a volcanic explosion from a nearby island that caused tidal waves.
Mainland civilization of Greece. They built fortified cities, had a written language, and it is believed that they conquered Crete after the tidal disaster. Set the foundation for city-states by tribal organization.
Greek religion differs greatly from all other religions during the period. The Greeks asked three things of their religion:
1. Explanation for the physical world.
2. Explanations for people's actions.
3. A way to gain benefits like long life, fortune, and abundant food.
Familiar Greek Gods:
It did not focus on morality and did not save from sin. It didn't bring spiritual blessings or ensure life after death. They thought all people went to a gray and gloomy place after death called HADES.
Zeus--God of the sky
Poseidon--God of the sea, Zeus' brother
Hades--Ruler of the underworld
Athena--Daughter of Zeus, Goddess of wisdom
Aphrodite--Daughter of Zeus, Goddess of love and beauty
Dionysus--God of wine
Apollo--God of light and music
Hermes--Messenger to the gods
Ares--God of war
Eros--God of love
Demeter--Goddess of agriculture
Artemis--Goddess of hunting and the moon
Oracles--special sanctuaries where Greeks believed that the gods spoke through priests or priestesses, usually answering questions about the future
Military regulated Spartan citizens from birth until death.
GOAL OF RULES: Make every adult male citizen part of an efficient military machine designed to control the helots and extend Spartan power.
Ruler/Reformers of Athens
Hellenistic Culture: Culture that was made after the conquer of Alexander the Great. Consisted of a cultural mix of Greek, Macedonian, and Persian.
The city-state of Athens had many aspects all including advancements in literature, philosophy, education, and politics.
Their military was not the center of the society.
Five rulers and reformers influenced the political development and democratization of Athens.
1. Draco--621 B.C.--Known for his harsh and severe law code.
Contribution: Written laws
2. Solon--594 B.C.--Trusted business leader who moderated between debtors and creditors. Canceled the debts of the poor.
Contribution: Jury of peers, appeals court, political parties
3. Pisistratus--560 B.C.--Wealthy aristocrat and relative of Solon. Became tyrant and had a following in the lower classes.
Contribution: Idea that common people had a say in government.
4. Cleisthenes--510 B.C.--Man of wealth and social position. Cared about common people. Opposed class divisions based on wealth and instead divided citizens as to where they lived. *Brought Athens closest to total democracy by reforming and giving the Assembly the power to choose the leaders AND punish them for wrongdoing!
Contribution: Legislative branch of government, representative districts, secret ballot
5. Pericles--Athenian leader after the Persian Invasion and withdrawl of Athens; greatest of all Athenian leaders and most influential speaker in the Assembly.
Led Athens for 30 years. (Age of Pericles)
1. Strengthen Athenian democracy
2. Build a commercial empire (Delian League)
3. Glorify and beautify Athens
Contribution: Opened offices to all citizens, provided that officeholders be paid, increased the number of public officials.
Marathon, Salamis, Plataea--decisive and important points in history.
1. Success gave Greeks confidence
2. Believed their way of life to be superior
3. Athens took credit for defeat of Persia and created an Aegean Empire
4. The wealth gained created a "Golden Age" for Athens
They completely rebuilt their city with even more temples and buildings.
Delian League--system of alliances among 140 Greek city-states, where each one contributed either ships or money to the alliance. Funds were deposited on the island of Delos
Important Persian War Battles:
Foremost center of Hellenistic culture and civilization
The Greeks are remembered and honored for their intellectual and artistic achievements, especially in philosophy.
1. SOCRATES--One of history's greatest thinkers and teachers. Lived in Athens from 469 B.C.-399 B.C. His method of questioning, and not receiving information, but to make people think and answer the questions themselves is called the Socratic Method.
His motto was "Know thyself."
2. PLATO--Wealthy young aristocrat; recorded Socrates' ideas. Traveled in the Mediterranean and returned to Athens and began to teach philosophy on the grounds of the Academy. Wrote the dialogues (imaginary conversations between people) and covered topics like education, government, justice, virtue, and religion.
3. ARISTOTLE--student of Plato who founded his own school in Athens. Accomplished scientist, investigated every kind of knowledge, collected information, and organized facts into systems. His process of organizing is the basis for modern scientific thinking.
Classified, collected, and described plants and animals.
PHYSICAL MAP OF AREA
POLIS OF ATTICA
Founded colonies on Mediterranean coast
Peninsula in Mediterranean
Exchange of culture/trade
Numerous good harbors on its irregular coastline
Types of Governments:
Aristocracy--group of nobles
Tyranny--one-man, for people
Democracy--rule by people
Move toward democracy (600s-400s BC)
Draco—Codified law (including severe punishments)
Solon—Granted male commoners right to vote in Assembly
Cleisthenes—extended male citizenship
Pericles—Golden Age of Athens
Paid salaries to public officials
Society and economy thrived
On Peloponnesian peninsula
Large number of slaves
Small number of citizens
Greek colonies in Asia Minor revolted
Darius defeated them and wanted to
annex all of Greece
Persians defeated at Marathon
Greeks rallied to beat Persians
Preserved Greek independence
Taught by Aristotle
Conquered Persian Empire
Created Hellenistic culture
Suddenly died at age 33
Alexander the Great
Athens is the place that humanism and democracy were born. The intellectual light that Athens created will always be alive.
Sparta is where the Hellenic group called the Dorians had their capital.
Athens was a city that was built inland to protect them from invaders. Pireaus was the special port.
Compare & Contrast the Cities:
1. descendants of Dorian invaders 1. Citizens
2. "Neighbors"--free men & women 2. Aliens--"non-Athenians
without citizenship called "metics'
3. Helots--slaves 3. Slaves--usually treated
1. Assembly elected by citizens 1. Aristocratic; only certain citizens
with land could vote
2. Council of Elders--proposed laws 2. Archons--rulers who served one-
year terms; appointed officials
3. Two Ceremonial kings 3. Judges--nobles who interpreted the
law (Usually favoring nobility)
4. Five EPHORS--overseers who were
elected for one-year terms by the
assembly. Used power harshly.
Erechtheion with the Porch of Caryatids.
Early Greek Geometrics
Early Greek Art & Artifacts
The Minoan World: mid-2M B.C.E.
Sir Arthur Evans
Aerial View of Knossos
Palace of King Minos – North Entrance
Palace of King Minos - Interiors
Palace of King Minos – Throne Room
Minoan Snake Goddess
Minoan Culture - Religion
Coast of Crete
THE ISLAND OF CRETE
Sir Heinrich Schliemann
View of Mycenae
Aerial View of Mycenae
Mycenae Citadel & Reconstuction
Approach to the Lion’s Gate
Plan of the City of Troy
Homer, the Blind Poet
Homer’s View of the World
The Rise of the Greek Polis
The Origins of our western world
The Trojan Horse is a
Cultural Diffusion--Occurs when different cultures integrate together to form an entirely different culture.
The blending of these cultures was all part of Alexander's plan. He made an effort to bring people and ideas from different places together. He married Persian princesses and encouraged his soldiers to also.
Alexander's prime city was Alexandria, Egypt. It was the busiest harbor in the world during this time.
1. Ended the era of independent city-states
2. Built new cities with temples, gymnasiums, and theaters
3. Greek settlers married Persian and adopted part of the Persian life.
The lighthouse called the "Pharos" was located there and is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
*Population of 1/2 million
*Royal Palaces, streets lined with Greek statues
*Famous museum of the Muses
*Famous library containing huge amount of scrolls, tablets and books
*Alexander's magnificent tomb--much visited even today
1. Expressed ideals of harmony, balance, & order
2. Glorified humans
3. Symbolized their pride of people in their city-states
4. Combined beauty and usefulness
4 Characteristics of Classical Greek Art:
1. Showed human emotions and captured moments.
2. More elaborate, emotional and active than Hellenic (Classical) art
3. More individualistic
Faces smile humanism is
Other Thinkers and Scientists of Greece
1. Pythagoras--philosopher and mathematician; Pythagorean Theorem.
2. Democritus--Philosopher that believed that moving atoms composed all matter.
3. Hippocrates--Greatest scientist of the Golden Age, considered the founder of medicine. First to teach that disease was not a punishment from the gods, but a natural cause.
4. Herodotus--Father of History; enthusiastic traveler and first historian of the western world.
5. Thucydides--Famous historian who wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War; wanted the accounts of history to reflect his belief that studying the past yields an understanding of the future.