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Occupational Therapy - Adult Perceptual Screening Test
Transcript of Occupational Therapy - Adult Perceptual Screening Test
Adult Perceptual Screening Test Screen for visual impairments, such as
- visuospatial skills
- constructional skills
- acalculia Reed, K. (2001). Quick reference to occupational therapy. Gaithersburg,
Maryland: Aspen Publishers.
Jacobs, K., & Jacobs, L. (2009). Quick Reference Dictionary for Occupational
Therapy. Thorofare: SLACK Incorporated. The purpose of the OT-APST Limitations - patients who have trouble comprehending language
- auditory or fine-motor difficulties
- patients with limited concentration
However, test can be modified for clients with expressive language difficulties Demonstration of 2 tests 1. Colour Agnosia 2. Constructional apraxia Essential elements
- two walls
- chimney and smoke
- two windows Scoring
0 Gross distortion
1 2-3 elements missing
2 4 essential elements missing
3 5-6 missing
4 All present
* No half points given The area of the brain which is targeted by this assessment is the visual processing areas which include the occipital lobe and also part of the temporal and parietal lobes.
This ax focuses on the visual processing pathways, including the primary and secondary visual cortex’s.
A process takes place from the time an image is perceived until it reaches the brain
When the visual stimuli reaches the primary visual cortex the primary and secondary visual cortex’s work together to interpret the image
The parietal and Temporal lobe also work to interpret and process the stimuli Active brain structures The assessment is looking for breakdowns in this processing system
These break downs can be caused by lesions to certain areas of the brain
Unilateral neglect is one such break down caused by a lesion to the left or right visual cortex.
Colour agnosia is another where there is normally a lesion on the occipito-temporal area of the brain Kalat, J. (2009). Biological Psychology. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning
Colour Agnosia. (2004). Retrieved May 9, 2011, from http://www.psych.ucalgary.ca/PACE/VA-Lab/Visual%20Agnosias/colouragnosia.html http://brisray.com/optill/ovision1.htm http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v9/n2/fig_tab/nrn2314_F1.html Validity of OP-APST What Is Important When Selecting An Assessment??
• Standardisation of test administration and scoring methods
• Sensitivity to relevant differences
• Responsiveness to change
• Ability of results to be easily communicated to others
• Relevance of the test for the client and the condition being evaluated
• Practical features to the clinical utility of the tool
• Validity 1. Reliability Reliability –refers to ‘the consistency and trustworthiness of research findings; it is often considered in relation to the issue of whether a finding is reproducible, at other times, and by other researchers’
Reliability can be described and determined by:
• Inter-rater reliability – is the extent to which different people rate the same performance consistently
• Intra-rater reliability – describes the extent to which the same person can rate the same performance consistently
• Test-retest reliability – describes the extent to which a stable evaluation of the attributes or behaviour can be obtained on two difference occasions when no change is expected 'Reference: Cooke et al. 2006' Reliability for the OT-APST was investigated...
Participants included 15 individuals following stroke or acquired brain injury
- 6 males and 9 females
- mean age of 70.5 years (range 20-94).
- 10 had right sided stroke, while the other 5 had left.
• Inter rated
12/25 items there were 100% agreement between all raters (including the gold standard rater)
The ICCs for interrater reliability ranged from 0.66 -1
• Intra rated
- 12/25 items showed 100% agreement
- The ICCs for Intrarater reliability ranged from 0.64 - 1
- Participants included 10 individuals, one year post stroke
- 4 males and 6 femalesmean age of 73.3 years (range 50-91 years)
- 5 had right sided stroke and 5 had left sided stroke
- 14/25 items showed 100% agreement
- ICCs for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.76 – 1 Reference: Cooke et al. 2006 Bears upon measurement and is ‘concerned with the integrity of the conclusions that are generated from a piece of research’ (Bryman 2008, cited in Liamputtong, p. 17, 2010)
•Face validity – indicated that an instrument appears to evaluate what it is supposed to and seems plausible to the users of the tool (assessors and respondents).
•Content validity – refers to the extent to which an instrument covers all the important aspects or domains of interest that it intends to measure, and does not include items that are irrelevant to what is being measured.
•Construct validity – refers the ability of an instrument to measure an abstract concept.
•Criterion validity – concerns the correlation of one tool with another, ideally a ‘gold standard’ that has been widely used and accepted in the field of interest
•Ecological validity – relates to the functional and predictive relationship between an individual’s performance on a set of neuropsychological tests or in an experimental context and their behaviour in the real world, or the ability to generalise results to meaningful real-life situations and behaviours (paper) 2. Validity Reference: Cooke et al. 2006 Validity for the OT-APST was investigated
•Face validity – expert manual
•Content validity – expert manual
•Construct validity – performance of stroke victims VS non stroke victim performances
•Criterion validity – performance of stroke victims VS non stroke victim performances
•Ecological validity – OT-APST scores vs. FIM correlations Liamputtong, P. (2010). The Science of Words and the Science of Numbers: Research Methods as Foundation for Evidence-based Practice in Health. In Liamputtong, P. (2010) Research Methods In Health – Foundations For Evidence-Based Practice (pp.3-26). South Melbourne: Oxford.
Imms, C., & Greaves, S. (2010). Measure Twice, cut once: Understanding the Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Measurement Tools Used in Health Research. In Liamputtong, P. (2010) Research Methods In Health – foundations for evidence-based practice (pp.3-26). South Melbourne: Oxford.
Cooke, D. M., McKenna, K., Fleming, J., & Darnell, R. (2006). Australian Normative Data for the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Test. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. Vol 53, pp.325-336. References (Kvale, 2007, cited in Liamputtong, p. 17, 2010)