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The Quest for Professionalism in Management and Entrepreneurship

Most recent version: April 2016
by

Sjoerd (Georges) Romme

on 24 August 2016

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Transcript of The Quest for Professionalism in Management and Entrepreneurship

WHAT
Extend quest for professionalism from "managers" to their "management technology" (cf. from pilot to aircraft)

Circular organizing / managing:

fundamentally redistributes power and authority throughout the organization

also of interest because abuse & rationalization of power in organizational & administrative settings might be one of the most important problems of our time
HOW
WHY
Toward a professional body of knowledge
More spin-offs
Creating and exploiting resources

Building awareness of opportunities
Training and Coaching
Universities of Technology
Context Action Mechanism Outcome

C A M O
research findings
entrepr. & innovation practices
prototypes
design principles
implementing & testing
inductively inferring
(reflection-in-action)
recommending improvements
informing
extracting & feedback
researching
practices
grounding & feedback
systematically reviewing & synthesizing
Source: adapted from D. Denyer, D. Tranfield & J.E. van Aken, Developing design propositions through research synthesis, Organization Studies, vol. 29 (2008): 393-413.
Deliberate design
Emergent design
Prototypes:
are (early) physical or mental representations of the artifact/ practice being (re)designed
serve to learn to create an artifact/practice that works, rather than a theoretical one
Research findings
arising from, for example:
surveys
case studies
controlled experiments
thought experiments
simulation models
analysis of secondary data
Design principles / propositions / rules can be formatted in CAMO terms:
Scholarship in (innovation) management and entrepreneurship is currently facing a legitimacy crisis, as a result of the substantial gap between academia and practice
(e.g. Rynes, Bartunek & Daft 2001; Hodgkinson & Rousseau 2009; Hughes et al. 2011)
MORAL
VOID
More specifically, the global community of management scholars has created a ....
in which:

we are
primarily talking to each other
, instead of advancing management practice
landscape of management research is
pluralistic
&
multi-paradigmatic,
involving fundamentally different perspectives on what drives firm performance, organizational processes, etc.
the level of
engagement
between practitioners and academics is generally
poor
and the
incentives and pressures to publish
undermine the practical relevance of research
James March
:
the malaise of management research is not so much a lack of relevance, but a
lack of essence

essence
=
being necessary to achieve some desired end
, 'essential' in the sense of being a necessary property, without which something is not what it claims to be
(presentation by James March at AoM conference 2008, quoted by Fendt 2013: 7)
Moreover:

several top journals have been retracting articles because authors
mischaracterized data and engaged in plagiarism
many of the prevailing methods for analyzing data and developing theory are
little more than magical acts

journal editors have been observed to
act coercively
in ensuring that authors cite their journals
Moral void of scholarship:
A lack of relevance or essence ?
(e.g. Ireland, Webb, & Coombs, 2005; Leitch, Hill, & Harrison, 2010; Zahra & Wright, 2011)
(Hughes et al. 2011; Starbuck 2006; Starkey & Madan 2001)
(Walsh, Meyer & Schoonhoven 2006; Honig, Lampel, Siegel & Drnevich 2013)
(Wilhite & Fong 2012)
Entrepreneurship & Innovation Management, as a body of knowledge, includes

both
scholarly

knowledge that serves to describe, explain, interpret and critically reflect on entrepreneurship & innovation management practices

as

(arti)
facts,

and
experiential

knowledge of practitioners with regard to creating and sustaining these practices
as artifacts
Management scholarship is not an essential part of management as
profession
and
professional community
, in contrast to e.g. medical or legal professions that rest on an infrastructure of research methods & findings on which practitioners base their day-to-day activities

Pfeffer (2012, p. ix): management “is not a profession, even though it might and should be.”

Two elements define a profession (Pfeffer 2012):
the development and adherence to a specialized body of knowledge
social norms, public expectations, and sanctions for violating those expectations
This paper addresses first element by exploring
how management/entrepreneurship research can
provide the basis for developing a professional body of knowledge
, and
how this body of knowledge
can be structured
in order to enable a viable & productive discourse on professional practice
The philosophy of design science in management research has been widely debated, for example:

Several scholars in organization & management studies (OMS) have discussed whether design science and
critical realism
are compatible (Hodgkinson & Starkey 2011 & 2012, Willmott 2012)
Avenier (2010) has criticized advocates of design science for not being explicit about the
epistemological foundations
of design science
Others have criticized design science in OMS as being
highly deterministic
in nature and not applicable to a broad set of organizational phenomena (Pandza & Thorpe 2010) and may become a “
mere set of tools
in the hands of self-appointed experts” (Bouchard & Del Forno 2012, p. 324)
Discourse on philosophical foundations
Pragmatism as philosophical foundation of professional body of knowledge
Outside management studies, there is a broad consensus on pragmatism as the philosophical foundation of design science (e.g. Warfield 1994, Cross 1995, Banathy 1996, Krippendorff 2006)
Neo-pragmatists such as Rorty (1982) and Bernstein (1991) have advocated a

dialogical
model that
promotes

conversation amongst a plurality of voices
,
even when there is no common ground prior to the conversation
enables researchers to engage in

self-referential

knowledge development (e.g., drawing on critical realism, constructivism, or positivism) as well as repeatedly
exposing themselves to fundamentally different views

as an opportunity to reconsider their central presuppositions
an abstract concept is only meaningful when it refers to
direct (sensory) experiences
emphasizes '
intelligent inquiry
' that draws on a mix of methods to find and develop solutions to practical challenges/problems
moves beyond positivism-constructivism
debate, allowing "researchers to put this debate to the side and, in the process, develop research that is focused on serving human purposes" (Wicks & Freeman 1998: 123)

Pragmatic maxim of Charles S. Peirce
human
capabilities to theorize

are

necessary for informed practice
; both theorizing & practicing are human activities in which scholars/practitioners engage with their environment in practical & manipulative ways (Zundel & Kokkalis 2010)
theoretical categories & frameworks involve
nominal concepts
developed to understand and address practical challenges & problems
therefore, there is no question of theory versus practice, but rather of

informed versus uninformed practice
John Dewey's notion of intelligent practice
Framework for structuring a professional body of knowledge
Adapted from: March, S.T. & G.F. Smith, "Design and natural science research on information technology",
Decision Support Systems
, 15 (1995): 251-266.
Create
Evaluate
Theorize
Justify
Values
Constructs
Models
Principles
Instantiations
R E S E A R C H A C T I V I T I E S & M E T H O D S
R E S E A R C H I N / O U T P U T S
Neo-pragmatists
Research synthesis
Knowledge management
Source: Pascal, Thomas & Romme (2013),
"Developing a human-centred and science-based approach to design: The knowledge management platform project."
British Journal of Management
, 24 (2): 264-280.
This study connects (deliberate) science-based design and (emergent) human-centered design:
science-based design
draws on deliberate process of developing design principles grounded in research findings
human-centered design
involves active participation by users and other stakeholders (e.g. testing prototypes)
Key question:
Can we develop a design research methodology that combines these design perspectives, to develop a knowledge management platform ?
The integrated design approach proposed:
involves practitioners and researchers co-producing knowledge
places arbitrage processes at the heart of these co-production processes
is highly iterative in nature
Method
Intended outcome:
to converge towards a robust solution (e.g. IT artifact) embraced by a large group of users
The design method involves:
1: Creating problem awareness
2: Developing design propositions
3: Creating scenarios of use
4: Designing and developing artifacts
5: Experimentation with prototypes
6: Organizational transformation
Overview of how KMP
project evolved
Design proposition 1:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (
= context
), an interactive map of competencies (
= action
) will serve to foster knowledge creation through R&D collaboration (
= outcome
) by reinforcing the four potential mediators of knowledge creation (
= generative mechanisms
):

opportunity

motivation

anticipation ability

combinative capability
Design principles developed in KMP project:
Design proposition 2:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (C), an interactive map of competencies (A) provides relevant information that enhances opportunities (GM) for finding the good partner for R&D collaboration (O). To trigger the opportunity mechanism, a competency is defined as an action that mobilizes technical, scientific and managerial resources (incl. knowledge) to produce deliverables that are likely to create value in a business activity.
Design proposition 3:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (C), building a common space representation of the cluster (A) reinforces the motivation of actors (M) to engage in R&D collaboration (O). This common space has to exhibit the following properties:
it represents all actors in terms of their main competencies: scientific and technical competencies (key stakeholders), managerial competencies (support) and relational competencies (facilitators); and
it positions the competencies of stakeholders in technological poles (similarity concept) as well as value chains (complementarity concept).

Design proposition 4:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (C), an interactive map of competencies enabling users to evaluate the degree of similarity and complementarity of competencies (A) reinforces the ability of actors to anticipate value created from exchanging and combining knowledge (M), which in turn enhances the willingness to engage in R&D collaboration (O). To evaluate the degree of similarity and complementarity, the map of competencies draws on the following definitions: competences are similar when they share the same resources, and complementary when sharing the same business activity.
Overall, KMP project was successful in building an interactive map of competencies that enhances knowledge exchange & combination within the Telecom Valley cluster in Sophia Antipolis:

This interactive map is now widely used throughout the cluster, which suggests several mediators (opportunity, motivation, anticipation ability) have been enhanced substantially
No data was collected on knowledge creation (outcomes) itself, thus conclusive evidence is not available
Results
This study illustrates:

the
interdependence & complementarity
of different elements of a complex design (cf. the 4 design propositions)
design propositions can meet the dual requirement of informing the design of a
practical
solution (e.g. for a cluster of IT firms) and responding to a
general class
of problems (e.g. fostering knowledge creation within a cluster of firms with broad scope of technologies)
abductive & experimental
design thinking can be effectively combined with
inductive and deductive
thinking by scholars
Evaluation
Source
:
J.C. van Burg & A.G.L. Romme (2014), "Creating the future together: Toward a framework for research synthesis in entrepreneurship."
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
, 38: 369-397.

HISTORY

Quest for professionalism goes back to the
early days of the management discipline
(e.g. Babbage, Ure, Dupin, Taylor, Fayol, Parker Follett, Barnard)



First business schools were therefore established to train a
professional
class of managers



Since 1950-60s, many business schools have repositioned their curricula and research programs, with intention to transform these toward
science-based professionalism

The

Quest for Professionalism

in Management & Entrepreneurship

Georges (Sjoerd) Romme


(Science-Based) Professionalism =

Purpose
Knowledge
Behavior
Expectation
American and European business schools
misappropriated
the target of science-based professionalism, by overshooting it: they now focus almost exclusively on academic quality



An
intellectual stasis
currently characterizes management scholarship and its capacity to inform management practice
(Source: Khurana & Spender 2012)

In their quest for academic respectability, most management scholars ...
have abandoned the quest for professionalism
engage poorly with practice and practitioners
treat their students as consumers of course contents rather than apprentices in a profession
Management scholars have great difficulties in coming to grips with the non-professionalism and immorality implied by these examples because ...

Enron, ICI, Worldcom, Global Crossing, Tyco International, Kmart, Xerox, Vestia, Volkswagen & many other companies




Megaprojects such as Berlin Brandenburg airport, San Francisco Transbay Terminal, 2014 Soccer World Cup in Brazil, and 2014 Winter Olympics in Russia
Purpose
Knowledge
Behavior
Expectation
In their quest for academic respectability, most management scholars ...
have abandoned the quest for professionalism
engage poorly with practice and practitioners
treat their students as consumers of course contents rather than apprentices in a profession
Toward a shared sense of professional purpose & responsibility

This notion of professional purpose has to go beyond "MBA Oaths" or other (ethical) codes of conduct

An assessment of the pluralistic & fragmented nature of the management landscape suggests:
the
plurality
of voices needs to be more widely embraced and nurtured, but
the
fragmentation
of management scholarship is best tackled at level of (the lack of shared) purpose
We
prototyped
a statement of professional purpose & responsibility in a group of 7 scholars and practitioners:





This preliminary definition of professional "common ground" needs to be
further developed
&
beta tested

A first test involved an
All-Academy Symposium
at the AoM conference in Vancouver (August 2015), where a highly diverse group of scholars & practitioners scrutinized the proposed common ground

Given the Euro-American bias of the process thusfar, future "
tests
" also need to include management scholars & practitioners in
Asia
,
Africa
, and elsewhere
With a minimum amount of common ground, conversations amongst a plurality of voices are more likely to come alive and be sustained
Management should be(come) a profession that serves

the greater good by bringing people and resources together to create value that no single individual can create alone

in which:
practicing and knowing co-constitute each other;
professionals share an interest in outcomes and implications, and
are committed to learning to see from different perspectives;
pluralism of voices and dialogical encounters fuel professional development

The

tribal

nature of management scholarship & practice and other institutional barriers prevent a culture of dialogical encounter from coming alive

We need more/better

trading zones
to
develop common ground that supports efforts to professionalize management practice & scholarship
Potential trading zones are, for example:
- new business incubators
- management labs
- professional degree (DBA) programs

The ‘trading zone’ strategy is highly
pragmatist
in nature, by avoiding the need for major institutional changes that would be difficult to accomplish
Trading zone:

space where communities with disparate meanings and logics collaborate despite their differences and - partly incommensurable - paradigms (Galison 1997)
Mechanisms to control and regulate entry to the profession as well as behavior by its members ...

are
not
fundamental to professionalization

but are
outcomes
of "successful" professionalization
Professional purpose, knowledge & behavior
Expectations of external stakeholders
Professionals internalizing expectations as their own
High expectations are essential to quest for professionalism in management,
but:

these expectations are currently
rather low

misconduct, mismanagement & other forms of non-professionalism are so widespread that the
public media
only pays attention to the most extreme & dramatic cases
employees and other internal stakeholders in many organizations often
do not feel safe enough
to speak up and signal such problems
Professionalization is often equated with
conditions & regulations
for entry to the profession as well as
sanctions & penalties
regarding unprofessional conduct



Counterproductive
when regulations & sanctions change intrinsic into extrinsic commitment
DESIGN PERSPECTIVE

The
P x K x B x E
definition of professionalism serves to characterize current state of the management discipline, but ...

in itself does not provide any direction toward future solutions
Design
provides a metaphor & perspective that opens up ways to think about the future of management and its scholarship

The Quest for Professionalism is about
designing pathways
out of the ‘intellectual stasis’ of management (scholarship)
Overview of Shareholder Value,
Multi-Stakeholder & Circular Organizing
Managers / entrepreneurs are attracted to circular organizing because it

makes companies operate more reliable & transparent, like software (code)
uses engineering terminology (e.g. org-structure as operating system)
creates a new hierarchy around work rather than titles or positions
Implication:

managers & entrepreneurs should start operating like professional surgeons or aircraft pilots

using advanced
management technology
, comparable to state-of-the-art operating room for surgeons or a modern aircraft for pilots ...
Developing a

shared
sense of
purpose & responsibility
that goes beyond ceremonial codes of conduct
via a global discourse (in special issues, conferences, social media, PhD & MBA courses, etc.)
Pioneered by two entrepreneurs with engineering background, Gerard Endenburg (NL) and Brian Robertson (USA):



-
sociocratic
circular organizing
-
holacratic
circular organizing
Examples of
sociocratic
circular organizing

Fabrique:
award-winning design agency with offices in Amsterdam, Delft and Rotterdam

MyWheels:
care-sharing service in the Netherlands that has been applying circular organizing from its early days as start-up in 2003

Terra Viva Group:
agribusiness company that used circular organizing to fuel its growth from a small family-owned business to one of the largest agri-business firms in Brazil

IVT Thuiszorg:
Dutch organization of about 350 employees offering a broad portfolio of homecare services

More than 10
cohousing communities
in the US, for example Champlain Valley Cohousing and Burlington Cohousing East Village
Examples of
holacratic
circular organizing

Ternary Software
(USA)

David Allen Company
(USA)

Precision Nutrition
(USA)

Medium
(USA)

F19
(Netherlands)

Zappos
(part of Amazon)
Tony Hsieh (Zappos) is using
holacracy
to replace Zappos’ traditional management structure to confront some of the plagues observed at many large companies―(e.g. employee disenchantment)

He wants “Zappos to function more like a city and less like a top-down bureaucratic organization”
(Groth 2015)
without which the growing
expectations
of management as a profession are increasingly
difficult to meet

P R O F E S S I O N A L I Z A T I O N P A T H W A Y S
Enhancing
expectations
of management as profession, e.g. by
transforming silenced into assertive employees, by creating conditions where they can freely speak up (incl. whistle blowing)
educating professors, students, non-executive directors and others in how to address gaps between what managers do and what they say they do
Toward a
professional body of knowledge
that
arises from discovery & validation of management theories that are instantiated in management technologies
explicitly raises & addresses questions about 'values' and 'power'
Creating
trading zones
where different voices & interests meet, for example:
using new business incubators more deliberately in discovering & validating management strategies, systems, tools, etc.
growing and renewing professional degree (e.g. DBA) programs

the publish-or-perish system ...
makes many scholars emphasize

productivity at the expense of innovation
and theoretical relevance at the expense of professional relevance
creates so much pressure to publish that some engage in
plagiarism
and
mischaracterizing and manipulating data


(Bouchikhi & Kimberly 2001; De Rond & Miller 2005; Honig & Bedi 2012; Matlack 2013)
they operate in “tribes that form around rigor and relevance, sequestering themselves into
closed loops of scholarship
” and primarily talk to their own tribe and tend to dismiss work done outside their own tribe

(source: Gulati 2007: p. 775; see also Bedeian 1989; Bradbury Huang 2010)
About
half
of all managerial decisions made in organizations
fail

(e.g. Nutt 1999 & 2011)
SOBERING FACTS:
Many managers, also those with MBA degrees, struggle to
lead & motivate
their staff to realize objectives
(Haney & Sirbasku 2011)

Ongoing stream of accounting scandals, options-backdating schemes, other
ethics breaches
, and dramatic cases of
mismanagement
Distribution of professional management practices among firms and other organizations
source: Wharton School
Photo by Michael F. Mehnert - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11002099
Source: Romme (2016)
Source: Romme (2016)
Source: Romme (2016)
Source: Romme (2016)
"Science"
"Design"
Source: Bloom et al. (2015) & Romme (2016)
Method
Research synthesis
REFERENCES
Barr SH, Baker T, Markham SK, Kingon AI (2009). Bridging the valley of death: Lessons learned from 14 years of commercialization of technology education.
Academy of Management Learning & Education
8: 370-388.
Van Burg JC, Gilsing VA, Reymen IMMJ & Romme AGL (2013). The formation of fairness perceptions in the cooperation between entrepreneurs and universities.
Journal of Product Innovation Management
, 30: 677-694.
Knowledge management
Source: Pascal, Thomas & Romme (2013),
"Developing a human-centred and science-based approach to design: The knowledge management platform project."
British Journal of Management
, 24 (2): 264-280.
This study connects (deliberate) science-based design and (emergent) human-centered design:
science-based design
draws on deliberate process of developing design principles grounded in research findings
human-centered design
involves active participation by users and other stakeholders (e.g. testing prototypes)
Key question:
Can we develop a design research methodology that combines these design perspectives, to develop a knowledge management platform ?
The integrated design approach proposed:
involves practitioners and researchers co-producing knowledge
places arbitrage processes at the heart of these co-production processes
is highly iterative in nature
Method
Intended outcome:
to converge towards a robust solution (e.g. IT artifact) embraced by a large group of users
The design method involves:
1: Creating problem awareness
2: Developing design propositions
3: Creating scenarios of use
4: Designing and developing artifacts
5: Experimentation with prototypes
6: Organizational transformation
Overview of how KMP
project evolved
Design proposition 1:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (
= context
), an interactive map of competencies (
= action
) will serve to foster knowledge creation through R&D collaboration (
= outcome
) by reinforcing the four potential mediators of knowledge creation (
= generative mechanisms
):

opportunity

motivation

anticipation ability

combinative capability
Design principles developed in KMP project:
Design proposition 2:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (C), an interactive map of competencies (A) provides relevant information that enhances opportunities (GM) for finding the good partner for R&D collaboration (O). To trigger the opportunity mechanism, a competency is defined as an action that mobilizes technical, scientific and managerial resources (incl. knowledge) to produce deliverables that are likely to create value in a business activity.
Design proposition 3:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (C), building a common space representation of the cluster (A) reinforces the motivation of actors (M) to engage in R&D collaboration (O). This common space has to exhibit the following properties:
it represents all actors in terms of their main competencies: scientific and technical competencies (key stakeholders), managerial competencies (support) and relational competencies (facilitators); and
it positions the competencies of stakeholders in technological poles (similarity concept) as well as value chains (complementarity concept).

Design proposition 4:
In a multi-actor cluster with a broad scope of technologies (C), an interactive map of competencies enabling users to evaluate the degree of similarity and complementarity of competencies (A) reinforces the ability of actors to anticipate value created from exchanging and combining knowledge (M), which in turn enhances the willingness to engage in R&D collaboration (O). To evaluate the degree of similarity and complementarity, the map of competencies draws on the following definitions: competences are similar when they share the same resources, and complementary when sharing the same business activity.
Overall, KMP project was successful in building an interactive map of competencies that enhances knowledge exchange & combination within the Telecom Valley cluster in Sophia Antipolis:

This interactive map is now widely used throughout the cluster, which suggests several mediators (opportunity, motivation, anticipation ability) have been enhanced substantially
No data was collected on knowledge creation (outcomes) itself, thus conclusive evidence is not available
Results
This study illustrates:

the
interdependence & complementarity
of different elements of a complex design (cf. the 4 design propositions)
design propositions can meet the dual requirement of informing the design of a
practical
solution (e.g. for a cluster of IT firms) and responding to a
general class
of problems (e.g. fostering knowledge creation within a cluster of firms with broad scope of technologies)
abductive & experimental
design thinking can be effectively combined with
inductive and deductive
thinking by scholars
Evaluation
Source
:
J.C. van Burg & A.G.L. Romme (2014), "Creating the future together: Toward a framework for research synthesis in entrepreneurship."
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
, 38: 369-397.
Searching for partners (open innovation)
Examples of work at interface of discovery and validation
Osterwalder’s work on business modeling:

In his doctoral thesis, Osterwalder systematically reviewed & synthesized the literature as well as collected interview data on business model development, resulting in an initial framework
This framework was subsequently developed, via prototyping processes involving the active participation of 470 practitioners into the
business model canvas


This co-creation effort to prototype a tool illustrates
how
deliberate
and
emergent
processes may interact and co-evolve over time, and
how
design techniques and tools
contribute to developing answers to strategic business questions as well as designing objects such as business models

References:
Osterwalder, A. 2004. The Business Model Ontology - A Proposition in a Design Science Approach. Doctoral dissertation, University of Lausanne (Switzerland).
Osterwalder, A., Y. Pigneur. 2010. Business Model Generation. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Osterwalder, A., Y. Pigneur. 2013. Designing business models and similar strategic objects: The contribution of IS. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 14: 237-244.
Sarasvathy's work on entrepreneurial effectuation:

In her doctoral thesis, Sarasvathy raised hypothetical scenarios to 27 successful entrepreneurs, by asking them to “think aloud” regarding how they would approach a particular start-up proposition
From these data, she then (off-line) extracted design principles for entrepreneurial
effectuation
: for example, "Bird in Hand" and "Affordable Loss"


These design principles have been informing the redesign and transformation of
entrepreneurship education & training programs
at many schools and universities throughout the world
This body of knowledge also illustrates interaction between
deliberate
and
emergent
processes in design science

References:
Sarasvathy, S.D. 2001. Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26: 243-263.
Sarasvathy, S.D. 2003. Entrepreneurship as a science of the artificial. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24: 203-220.
Sarasvathy, S.D. 2008. Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
Business modeling / Effectuation
University spinoff:
new company founded to exploit intellectual property (IP) created in a university
commercializes technological inventions that would otherwise remain unexploited

Observations:
Some universities create no (or hardly any) spinoffs, whereas others create substantial numbers of spinoffs
Potential conflict of interest between commercial and academic work
Goal of this study:
develop a set of (evidence-based) design principles for university spinoff creation

Case study
of spinoff creation processes & outcomes at TU/e, drawing on:
semi-structured interviews
documentary data

Identifying, creating and developing design principles
in 3 steps:
Practice-based principles are developed by converting the (partly tacit) knowledge of key agents in university spinoff creation into explicit principles
Systematic review of research findings in literature, leading to a set of research-based principles
The practice-based and research-based principles are synthesized in a set of design principles
Synthesis of practice & research in design principles


To build and increase capacity for creating spinoffs, the university should ...
create university-wide awareness of entrepreneurship opportunities, stimulate the development of entrepreneurial ideas, and subsequently screen entrepreneurs and ideas by programs targeted at students as well as academic staff
(......)
set clear and supportive rules and procedures that regulate the university spinoff process, enhance fair treatment of involved parties, and separate spinoff processes from academic research and teaching
shape a university culture that reinforces entrepreneurship, by creating norms and exemplars that motivate entrepreneurial behavior
Design principles arising from this study:


Interplay between emergent & deliberate design processe
s
: by infusing deliberate design principles, we facilitated the ongoing (largely emergent) process of creating/improving the university's incubator
This project particularly served to

redesign and optimize two prototypes/practices
: the Technology Entrepreneurship certificate program and the regional network of consultants and investors around the incubator
Barr et al. (2009) and several others have
replicated
our design principles
We identified several
theoretical

problems
, motivating subsequent work (e.g. Van Burg et al. 2013)

Evaluation
University spinoff creation
Source
: E. van Burg, A.G.L. Romme, V.A. Gilsing & I.M.M.J. Reymen, "Creating university spinoffs: A science-based design perspective."
Journal of Product Innovation Management
, vol. 25 (2008): 114-128.
Examples of work at interface of discovery and validation
Example of interplay between emergent & deliberate design
Example of research synthesis of body of literature (i.e. constructs & models) into principles
Example of discovering & validating instantiations (based on principles)
Complementarity of Phronetic, Representational and Instrumental Knowledge
Source: Romme (2016)
Purpose = low

because there is hardly any shared sense of purpose
(e.g. Khurana & Nohria 2008; Rolin 2010)

Knowledge = low

as the academic body of knowledge is highly fragmented and only loosely connected to practical knowledge
(e.g. Hughes et al. 2011; Walsh et al. 2006)

Behavior = low Expectation = low
given that our ignorance about organizations and managing them “is so great that forms of malfunctioning and the suffering which results from it are ubiquitous and are widely accepted as normal and unavoidable”
(Elias & Scotson 1994: 181)



The overall level of professionalism of management is therefore
rather low
P
x
K
x
B
x
E

values
constructs
models
principles
instantia-tions
creating
evaluating
theorizing
justifying
Research activities & methods
Research outputs & inputs
Source: adapted from March & Smith (1995)
The intellectual stasis of the field of management is also evident in the subfield of
family business (FB)

research that:

tends to neglect questions of "purpose", which are highly critical in firms thriving on human capital (Gersick 2015);
is highly fragmented, lacking consensus on the main empirical phenomena (Gedajlovic et al. 2012; Randerson et al. 2015); and thus
suffers from a
major gap
between FB practice (incl. its consultants) and FB scholarship
Tacit/explicit
nature of management (incl. entrepreneurial) knowledge makes the management (research) discipline highly challenging


"design science" has become a metaphor that needs to be operationalized
"Design"
"Science"
Example:
what does "
testing
" mean (for you)?
PROGRAM - DAY 1
9:00-9:45 Intro round & organizational issues

9:45-10:45 Toward a professional body of knowledge - recap of Chapter 3 (The Quest for Professionalism)

Break

11:00-12:30 Discussion of
JPIM 2008
article (Creating university spinoffs):
- preparation in small groups
- plenary discussion of findings

12:30-13:30: Lunch break

13:30-15:00: Discussion of
ET&P 2014
article (about research synthesis):
- preparation in small groups
- plenary discussion of findings

Break

15:15-16:30: What is your contribution to the profession?
Group assignment
"Creating university spinoffs: A science-based design perspective"

Discuss the research question, research method and main findings:
Imagine you're reviewing this paper for a journal: how would you look at it?
Assess the study from a
validation
as well as
discovery
point of view (cf. Table 3.1 in The Quest for Professionalism); does the validation vs discovery perspective affect your assessment?
Raise and discuss questions regarding issues that need clarification
The remaining questions (not solved in your group) will be discussed in the subsequent plenary session
Group assignment
"Creating the future together: Toward a framework for research synthesis in entrepreneurship"

Discuss the research question, methodology, argumentation and main findings in this paper:
How do we position this study in
Table 3.1
in The Quest for Professionalism?
Raise and discuss questions regarding anything that needs clarification
Raise the remaining questions (not solved in your group) in the subsequent plenary session


a) What do you want/hope to achieve by completing this project, apart from obtaining a doctoral degree?

b) What are the key research outputs you're aiming at (in terms of vertical axis of
Table 3.1
) ?

c) Which research activities will you engage in (see horizontal axis of
Table 3.1
) ?

d) Assess the consistency and alignment of your (initial) answers to questions a, b and c
What is your contribution to the profession?

Revisit the current research question, theory & method central to your PhD project:
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