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Outcomes of Higher Education
Transcript of Outcomes of Higher Education
Analyze the student's story to this point and make recommendations based on the theories we have discussed to create positive college outcomes for the student in the case. Group Work Outcomes of Higher Education
Developmental Theory-Addresses the nature, structure, and process of individual growth. The theory relates to what is going on internally, or inside the person.
Ex. Chickering's 7 Vectors
College Impact Model- Focuses on the environment and the person's experiences. The theory relates to external forces effecting the person.
Ex. Astin's I-E-O Model Astin's I-E-O Model
Theory Of Involvement 1. Achieving Competence-
The gradual process of gaining
proficiency in various areas such
as intellectual and physical skills. 2. Managing Emotions-
Being able to control responses
to various situations and having
deeper emotional connections. 3. Moving Through Autonomy
Becoming more independent,
self-reliant, and being less
concerned with the views of
peers when making decisions. 4. Developing Mature
Being open to people with new
perspectives, beliefs, values,
and respectfully appreciating
differences. 5. Establishing Identity-
Being able to establish a
sense of who you are, and
feeling comfortable with
who you are as a person. Chickering's Seven Vectors
of Student Development 6. Developing Purpose-
Establishing goals and
priorities, devising a
strategy to accomplish
those aspirations, and
making. 7. Developing
Integrity- The ability
to reassess and self-reflect
on your views
and principles. I-E-O Model
-Outcomes are viewed as functions of three sets of elements 1. Inputs:
Demographic characteristics, family backgrounds, academic
and social experiences 3. Outputs:
Students' characteristics, knowledge, skills, attitudes,
values, beliefs, and behaviors
as they exit college 2. Environment:
Range of people, programs,
policies, cultures, and experiences
that students encounter
in college Theory of Involvement Students learn by
involved Student plays the lead
role since change is only likely
to occur to the extent that
the student capitalizes on opportunities Involvement requires
investment in psychological and physical
energy in "objects", is a continuous concept
and different students will invest varying
amounts of energy, and the amount of
learning or development is directly
proportional to the quality and
quantity of involvement http://www.nbc.com/community/video/lower-education/n2850/ Families of Theory Conclusion In Chickering and Reiser's book,
Education and Identity, they identify
seven areas where colleges and
universities can encourage student
development along each of the
seven vectors. They also suggest that educationally powerful environments reflect several principles or characteristics:
1. A view of education as systemic, compromising
2. A willingness to re-evaluate existing assumptions.
3. The integration of work and learning.
4. Recognition and respect for individual differences.
5. An understanding of learning and development as
"cycles of challenge and response, differentiation
and integration, disequilibrium and regaining
equilibrium. Evolving Theories:
Other studies claimed that developing purpose occurred earlier in a student's college experience, which challenges the order of the vectors.
Researchers must look at development for various student populations independent of dominant culture models
Vectors can elicit different experiences by students of different genders, race, and sexual identities.
Revised theory and vectors provide information on women, African Americans, and Hispanic students.
Lacks explanation of American Indian and Asian American development experiences. 1. Clarity of institutional objectives and the internal
consistency of policies, practices, and activities.
2. An institutional size that does not restrict opportunities for
3. Frequent student-faculty relationships in diverse settings.
4. Curricula oriented to integration in both content and
5. Teaching that is flexible, varied in instructional styles and
modes, and aimed at encouraging active student
involvement in learning.
6. Friendships and student communities that become
meaningful subcultures marked by diversity in attitudes and
backgrounds and by significant interpersonal exchanges.
7. Student development programs and services characterized
by their educational content and purpose and offered
collaboratively with faculty. Ideal Outcomes as Social Constructions
Assessing developmental progress
Ideal Outcomes and College Readiness
Coming trend to skip college? Further Thoughts
and Readings "Perhaps the most important contribution of higher education to social cohesion has to do with the university's influence over the formation and socialization of shared values. The fact is that universities that support social cohesion are not values-neutral." (Heyneman, Kraince, Lesko, and Bastedo) "We were very respectful of one another's views, because we all understood those views had evolved from our very different backgrounds." (Light, 2001, p. 212)