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Emotions & Moods

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by

Joel Aldaz

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of Emotions & Moods

Emotions & Moods
What are the basic emotions and the basic mood dimensions?
Basic emotions:
Anger
Fear
Sadness
Happiness
Disgust
Surprise
What are the similarities and differences between emotions and moods?
Moods:
Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus


Are emotions and mood rational?
Emotions cannot be neutral

Some people think that emotions are linked to irrationality and that expressing emotions in public may be damaging to your career or status.

Research has shown that emotions are necessary for rational thinking.
They help us make better decisions and help us understand the world around us.

If we are going to make decisions, we need to incorporate both thinking and feeling.
Basic Moods
Our basic moods carry positive and negative affects, they cannot be neutral. Emotions are grouped into general mood states. These states impact how employees perceive reality and thereby the moods can impact the work of employees.

Time cools, time clarifies; no mood can be maintained quite unaltered through the course of hours. -Mark Twain
Affect:
A broad range of emotions that people experience

Emotions:
Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something

Mood Dimensions:
Positive affect high end
Excitement
Self-assurance
Cheerfulness
Positive affect low end
Boredom
Sluggishnes
Tiredness
Mood Dimensions:
Negative affect high end
Nervousness
Stress
Anxiety
Negative affect low end
Relaxation
Tranquility
Poise
What are the primary sources of emotions and moods?
Personality
Some people are predisposed to certain moods and emotions. People also experience the same emotion with different intensities also known as, affect intensity. Affect intensity measures how strongly one experiences their emotions. These emotions can be felt on the positive and negative side

Day of Week and Time of Day
The day of the week and time of day DOES matter. People tend to be in the worst moods (highest negative affect and lowest positive affect) early in the week, and in their best moods ( highest positive affect and lowest negative affect) late in the week.

Time of day?
Although most assume we are either “morning” or “evening” people, most of us actually follow the same pattern. That is, positive affect peaks halfway between waking and sleeping. As a result, Monday mornings are probably not the best time for bad news. Try waiting until after mid morning and much later in the week.

Weather
Is your mood tied to the weather? The answer is no.
Illusory correlation – The tendency of people to associate two events when in reality there is no connection.
According to experts, people are NOT happier on bright sunshiny days or sad on dark rainy days.
Stress
Stress can build over time and worsen our mood. That nasty e-mail or fast approaching deadline will negatively affect our moods.

What are the primary sources of emotions and moods?
What is emotional labor and why is it important to understanding OB?
Sleep
U.S adults are sleeping less than adults a generation ago. Sleep quality does affect mood with feelings of fatigue, anger and hostility. Lack of sleep impairs our decision making and makes it difficult to control emotions. Job satisfaction suffers with sleep impairment leading to irritable and less alert employees.

Exercise
Research shows that exercise does improve your mood and seems to work strongest for those who are depressed.

Age
Negative emotions occur less as people get older. A study of people ages 18- 94 revealed highly positive moods lasted longer for older individuals, and bad moods faded more quickly.

Gender
Evidence does confirm that women are emotionally more expressive than men. Women experience emotions more intensely and will hold onto negative emotions longer than their male counterparts.


Emotional labor is a situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.

We expect servers to be happy and accommodating while we expect emergency personnel to be serious; but we are met with challenge when employees have to project one emotion when feeling another also known as emotional dissonance.

Feelings of frustration, anger and resentment with no outlet can lead to emotional exhaustion. It is through the increasing importance of emotional labor as a major factor in effective job performance that we have come to understand the relevance of emotion in within the field of OB.


What is emotional labor and why is it important to understanding OB?
It helps to separate emotions into two categories:

Felt emotions - are an individuals actual emotions.

Displayed emotions – those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job.

We are not born with these skills but rather, they are learned. Think of the first runner-up in the Miss America pageant. How we experience an emotion is not always the same as how we show it.

Surface acting is the act of hiding our true inner feelings and foregoing emotional expression.

Deep acting is trying to modify our inner feelings based on display rules.

Research show that surface acting is more stressful to employees because it involves feigning their true emotion.

What is affective events theory? What insight does it contribute to understanding emotions?
Affective Events Theory
demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and this can influence their job performance and job satisfaction. The intensity of these responses will be based on emotion and mood.

AET has a number of implications. These implications are as follows:

When an employee has an emotional episode, it is actually the result of a series of emotional experiences that are triggered by a single event.
Your job satisfaction is impacted by current and past emotions.
As your emotions fluctuate over time, it will create variations in job performance.
Behaviors that are driven by emotions are typically brief and variable.
Both positive and negative emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance.

In summary, emotions do provide very valuable information and predict factors about behavior. In addition, it is important not to ignore minor events as they will accumulate over time.

What is emotional intelligence, and what are the arguments for and against its importance?
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
is a growing area of study and is becoming increasingly important in the understanding of individual behavior. EI is pulling in one’s understanding of emotions and their impact on behavior.
An individual who is emotionally intelligent will have a strong sense of self-awareness, recognizing your own emotions when experienced.
They are also able to detect emotions in others. By understanding their own emotions and those of others, they can manage emotional cues and information to make decisions.

Argument for EI:
Intuitive appeal; predicts criteria that matter; is biologically-based.

Argument against EI:
Too vague a concept; can’t be measured; its validity is suspect.

Strategies for emotion regulation

Selection

Decision making

Creativity

Motivation

Leadership

Negotiation

There are several strategies for emotion regulations:
Negotiation

Costumer service

Job attitudes

Deviant workplace behavior

Manager’s influence

Global Implications
Across cultures there do not seem to be differences in how people experience emotions.

However, it is shown that in different cultures there are different interpretations of emotions.

Some cultures are more accepting of emotional expression than others.

When you are engaging with other cultures, be sure to understand their cultural norms.
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