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The Agricultural Revolution

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Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 25 March 2017

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Transcript of The Agricultural Revolution

The Agricultural Revolution
Learning Intention
The Agricultural Revolution
The Agricultural Revolution
The Agricultural Revolution
From the middle of the 18th century onwards, Britain experienced both an Agricultural Revolution and an Industrial Revolution, which made it the richest country in the world.

In contrast, Ireland was a much poorer country which suffered during the Great Famine.
Background
In the first half of the 18th century, Britain was a mainly agricultural country.
About 70 per cent of the people lived on the land.
Goods such as clothes were made in houses under a system called
domestic industry.
Old System of Farming
In many parts of Britain the system of farming remained the same as in the Middle Ages.
This system was called the
three field system, or the open field system.
It had many
faults
and could not produce the food needed for Britain's growing population.
Great changes occurred in farming methods in the late 18th and early 19th century.
This change was called the
Agricultural Revolution.
Rise in Population
The population of Britain grew in the 18th century because of a fall in the death rate and a rise in the birth rate.
Between 1701 and 1801, the population rose from 6.5 million to 10 million people.
This rise in population led to a greater demand for food and clothes.
More people were also available for work.
Enclosures
Farming methods had changed little since the Middle Ages.
Now many areas went through a process of
enclosure
to satisfy the demand for more food.
In this process, the three open fields and the common were divided into farms surrounded by fences and hedges.
Acts of Enclosure
were passed, and commissioners were appointed to divide the land into individual farms.
New Methods of Farming
Enclosure made it
easier for farmers
to introduce new methods of farming and to use machinery.
Selective Breeding
Robert Bakewell
introduced
new breeding techniques
that improved sheep and cattle. Other farmers imitated his methods so that their cattle and sheep would produce
more meat
.
New Machinery
The Effects of the Agricultural Revolution
The changes meant that
more food
was produced for the owing population of the towns and cities.
Less labour
was needed on farms because of the use of machinery.
Labourers who were no longer needed the farms could go to work in the
new factories.
Examine what happened during the Agricultural Revolution.
From about 1750 onwards, Britain changed.
Over the next 100 years Britain became the first country to go through the
Industrial Revolution
.
This meant that goods were now made in
factories
, which used
water or steam power.
New towns and cities grew up and by 1850 more than half the people of Britain were living in cities.
What do you think were the faults with the open field system?
Norfolk Crop Rotation
Charles Townshend
developed the Norfolk crop rotation.
This system provided
turnips
to feed cattle over winter, rather than ing to slaughter them.
This increased the number of cattle.
The crop rotation also helped the soil recover, and it ensured that all the fields were used every year in contrast to the open field system.
Keywords: Domestic system, enclosure, Norfolk crop rotation.
Full transcript