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DNA replication

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by

Brooke Wilks

on 30 October 2016

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Transcript of DNA replication

Transcription
Translation
DNA & Replication
DNA works with another nucleic acid called Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
3) A second DNA polymerase adds complementary nucleotides on the other side of the ladder.

Protein synthesis
* Unattached RNA bases are present in the nucleus.
DNA and RNA structural differences
Carries the message from DNA into the cytoplasm. Is read by the ribosome on codon at a time
CODONS!
3 nucleotides that are translated into amino acids
James Watson & Francis Crick
DNA replication
RNA
Steps of DNA replication cont
Steps of DNA replication
* Process of DNA making copies of itself
1) DNA
helicase
unwinds the DNA
*Where the DNA is split open is called a replication fork
DNA replication uses enzymes

* Enzymes are molecules (proteins) that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life.

*enzymes end in "ase"
2) DNA
polymerase
adds the complementary nucleotides to one side of the ladder and binds the sugars and phosphates.
Steps of DNA replication cont...
4) Eventually two new double helixes are formed.
* It is involved in protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis: the process by which an organisms genotype (genetic makeup) is translated into its phenotype (the traits).
* Double stranded

* Contains Thymine

* Has sugar Deoxyribose
DNA
RNA
*Contains Uracil


* Has Ribose sugar
There are 3 types of RNA
a. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
b. Transfer RNA
(tRNA)
c. Ribosomal RNA
(rRNA)
Protein synthesis occurs in 2 stages
The genetic information from a strand of DNA is copied into a strand of mRNA
*Transcribe means "to copy"
The process in cells where bases code for proteins
* RNA polymerase matches RNA bases with the complimentary bases on one strand of the DNA template.
A pairs with U
G pairs with C
* The chromosome coil loosens; transcription begins with RNA polymerase. This enzyme separates the two strands of DNA and exposes the base pairs
Tell your shoulder partner what RNA stands for!

Ready.... GO!
Ribonucleic Acid
What are the 3 differences between DNA and RNA?
RNA has no _______ but instead has _____.
DNA has a ___________ sugar and RNA has a ______ sugar
DNA is ______ stranded and RNA is ______ stranded
* RNA is single stranded
* RNA has a ribose sugar group
* RNA has no T... instead it has URACIL (U)
Where is DNA Helicase?
How do you know?
DNA review:
What does DNA stand for?

* a segment of DNA that codes for a trait
DNA Structure
Made up of nucleotides
5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
Phosphate
One of 4 nitrogen bases (A-T-C-G)
* The sugar & phosphate make up the backbone
* The bases make up the rungs (middle)
The 4 bases of DNA
What are the 4 bases?
A
G
C
T
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine
2 types:
Purines- (A & G) Double carbon ring
Pyrimidines (T & C) Single carbon ring
Base-Pair-Ruling
A pairs with T
G pairs with C
Chargaff's Rule:

DNA is going to contain equal amounts of A's and T's and equal amounts of G's and C's.
* Credited with discovering the structure of DNA
* Described it as a double helix/twisted ladder
What is a gene?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Forms the ribosomes in the cell. Aids in protein synthesis by linking amino acids with peptide bonds to build proteins
Carries amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome to help build proteins
What is a codon?

A sequence of 3 nucleotides that codes for an amino acid
Contributions to the structure of DNA
*Single Stranded
Why would DNA need to be copied?
* Replication ensures that each cell in your body has a complete copy of DNA
When would DNA need to make copies of itself?
* DNA replication occurs before cell division. Each new cell needs its own copy of dna
* This side is the
leading strand
and gets
copied continuously
(it follows the helicase as it unwinds)
* This side is the lagging strand...it is copied in the opposite direction of helicase and gets copied in segments
Riddle: Pb&j

Replication is Semi-conservative-
Each new DNA molecule that is replicated is 1/2 original strand and 1/2 newly formed DNA.
* Helicase splits the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs (like a zipper)
Imagine copying 1,000 letters down on paper. Do you think you might make a mistake?
* DNA replication can "proof-read" or "spell check" your replicated DNA.

* DNA polymerase detects errors.
Once a mistake is found, it will cut out the mistake and insert the correct nucleotide.

* some mistakes may go unnoticed which results in DNA mutations
Where is DNA polymerase?
Add to your study guide:

1. Types of RNA molecules
* What are they and what do they do?
2. What do enzymes do?

DNA is in the shape of a "double helix" or a "twisting ladder"
THE END for Meow
DNA FUNCTION
* DNA Stores information
* That information codes for genes/traits
* The order/sequence of nucleotides determines how the trait is expressed.
Example:
Red hair: ATTCGATA

Blonde hair: A C C T G A T A
Rosalind Franklin
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