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Ions and Isotopes

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by

Allison Carlson

on 26 September 2016

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Transcript of Ions and Isotopes

What happens if the number of
protons
and
electrons
is not the same???
Ions and Isotopes
You no longer have an atom~~you have an ion.
Ions are formed when an atom
loses
or
gains
one or more electrons.
This often occurs during a
chemical reaction
when compounds are formed.
Ions
How to write an ion
If you have a negative ion it is written with a negative sign following the element symbol.

Ex: Oxygen =
O
This is called an
anion
.
-2
If it is positive it looks like this:
Ex: Lithium =
Li
This is called a
cation.
+
Remember in an ion if you are adding electrons you are making an atom
NEGATIVE
!
So what is an isotope?
Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. This creates different possible versions of each element.
For example, the most common isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons at all; there's also a hydrogen isotope called deuterium, with one neutron, and another, tritium, with two neutrons.
Hydrogen
Deuterium
Tritium
If you want to refer to a certain isotope, you write it like this: X . Here X is the chemical symbol for the element, Z is the atomic number, and A is the number of neutrons and protons combined, called the mass number. For instance, ordinary hydrogen is written H , deuterium is H , and tritium is H .

Another way that isotopes are written are like this:
C-12, C-13, C-14
C-12 has a mass of 12, C-13 has a mass of 13, and C-14 has a mass of 14.
A
Z
1
1
2
1
3
1
How many isotopes can one element have? Can an atom have just any number of neutrons?
No; there are "preferred" combinations of neutrons and protons, at which the forces holding nuclei together seem to balance best. Light elements tend to have about as many neutrons as protons; heavy elements need more neutrons than protons in order to stick together. Atoms with a few too many neutrons, or not quite enough, can sometimes exist for a while, but they're unstable.
I'm not sure what you mean by "unstable." Do atoms just fall apart if they don't have the right number of neutrons?
Well, yes, in a way. Unstable atoms are radioactive: their nuclei change or decay by spitting out radiation, in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves.
Other examples of Isotopes....
Full transcript