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Copy of PA11 the nature and need for policy studies
Transcript of Copy of PA11 the nature and need for policy studies
identify the basic elements of public policy studies
state the reason for undertaking policy studies
for Policy Studies
US Experiences, Ideas, and Issues
importance of linguistic analysis and distinction of terms
scientist or analyst should not indicate his policy preferences
appropriation of technical equipment and competence of techonocrats for analysis and making recommendations
Romeo B. Ocampo
What are policy studies really all about?
teaching, research, and related academic and professional activities directed at gaining and applying knowledge for the improvement of governmental policies
began 25 years ago as a call for the active orientation
of the social sciences, psychology and other disciplines
to the solution of policy issues and problems
"the policy sciences"
emergence of academic units,
degree programs, institutional
research, new journals and
organizations and the conduct
of analyzing, planning and allied
activities devoted to public policies
political science, economics, business administration,
law, public health, and other academic and professional
disciplines have individually or jointly participated in
this movement, but none have done so more than
or policy analysis
PPBS (Planning-Programming Budgeting System)
By the federal government, policy analysis has
also grown as a PROFESSIONAL and INSTITUTIONAL
activity at different levels and in the area of American government
concern with substantive problems
processes of policy formation and
heavy reliance on quantitative evolution tools
encouragement of practical field experiece
political and institutional
economic theory and analysis
with emphasis on public-private
sector relationships in the allocation
behavioral and non-behavioral decision-making and implementation strategies and process
program mgt., control and evaluation
Problems of Identity and Certainty
emphasis on generalists or specialists?
how much training in management
as well as in policymaking and analysis?
the proper balance between quantitative
and nonquantitative methods
and whether policy research should
involve political advocacy
"Policy science" vs "Policy analysis"
Thomas R. Dye - the description
and explanation of the causes
and consequenses of government
involves the systematic identification
of the causes of the search for reliability
and generality of knowledge
process of analysis accdg to monetary costs and benefits
set of procedures to determine the technically best course of action
The systematic investigation of alternative policy options and the assembly and integration of the evidence for and against each option.
"the basic emphasis of the policy approach..
is upon the fundamental problems of men in
society rather than upon the topical issues
of the moment"
"In practice, policy tends to be social science
opprtunistically applied to the issues of the day"
and to resemble the process of American policymaking
in its preoccupation with 'tireless tinkering' with data
James E. Anderson suggests that poblic policy is a
"purposive" course of action "actually" followed
"by an actor or set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern"
Dye defines it as "whatever government choose to do or not to do".
Policy is a rule of action, manifesting or clarifying specific organization, goals, objectives, values, or ideals and often prescribing the obligatory or most desirable ways and means of their accomplishment. Such a rule for action established for the purpose of framing, guiding, or directing organizational activities, including decision-making, intends to provide relative stability, consistency, uniformity and continuity in the operations of the organization. - (Nikolaidis 1963: 347-356)
Policy science has had limited influence in the US due to inhopitability toward the claims of the former rationality.
Politics has its own kind of rationality
-one based on the need to decide on
limited information, balance of interests
and forces, and other considerations that
scientists may find irrelevant in the reso-
lution of policy issues.
Its importance derives it force from the expanding scope and authority
of gov't and widening array of programs and projects for national development.
emergence of "technocrats"
element essential to the conduct and impact of gov't
Attention to the form of substance of policy
presence of policy to govern a set of activities
policy objectives need to be explixitly stated, examined and tested for
generality and internal and external consistency
develop analytical sensitivity to the consistency among broad
objectives and policy program
prediction and evaluation
importance and concern in processes both in formulation and implementation
synthesis and analysis that attend policy decisionmaking and administrative action
deliberation that go into policy decisions