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Layers of the Earth - above and below

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Jacqueline Byatt

on 22 June 2014

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Transcript of Layers of the Earth - above and below

Our Earth
The Earth's basic
layers are:
The Crust
The Lithosphere
The Asthenosphere
The Mantle
The Outer Core
The Inner Core
The lithosphere is the solid, rocky crust that forms land
Contains all of the cold, hard, solid rock of the planet's crust
This crust is composed mainly of minerals

The hydrosphere is composed of all of the water on the earth including the oceans, rivers, lakes, and even the moisture in the air on or near Earth
97% of the earth's water is in the oceans
The remaining 3% is fresh water
3/4 of the fresh water is solid and exists in ice sheets that range from 10 to 20 km in thickness.
The hydrosphere extends from Earth's surface downward several kilometers into the lithosphere and upward about 12 km into the atmosphere.

Most of our atmosphere is located close to the earth's surface where it is at its most dense
The air of our planet is 79% nitrogen and almost 21% oxygen; their is a small amount of carbon dioxide and other gasses
The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation
The atmosphere becomes thinner, with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space (approximatley 50 km from the surface0

• Plants, animals, and all of the planet's living thing are all part of the biosphere.
• Most of the planet's life is found from three meters below the ground to thirty meters above it and in the top 200 meters of the oceans and seas.
• The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems.
• It has an interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
• The biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning through a process of biogenesis, at least some 3.5 billion years ago.

• The mesosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.
• In the mesosphere, temperature will decrease and will increase its height.
• The upper boundary of the mesosphere is the mesopause, which can be the coldest naturally occurring place on Earth with temperatures below −226 °F.
• The exact upper and lower boundaries of the mesosphere vary with latitude and with season, but the lower boundary of the mesosphere is usually located at heights of about 50 kilometers above the Earth's surface.

The asthenosphere is a part of the upper mantle just below the lithosphere
It is between ~80 and ~200 km below the surface.
It is involved in plate tectonic movement
It is mainly solid - some of its regions could be melted
The thickness of the asthenosphere depends mainly on temperature and pressure


Earth's Layers
The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth, it is between 0 to 700 kilometers thick
Represents less than 1% of the Earth's total volume.
The crust is composed of two basic rock types: granite and basalt.
The crust is all we can see because heat and pressure make it impossible to go a greater depth
The Crust
The mantle is the second layer of the Earth and includes the lithosphere and the asthenosphere
The mantle has the consistency of toffee
The mantle is located between the crust and the outer core
The Earth's mantle is comprised mainly of silicate
It is approximately 2,900 km thick
Constitutes about 84% of Earth's volume
The Mantle
Due to high temperature and pressure the outer core is a liquid layer about 2,266 km thick
Composed of iron and nickel
Located between the Earth's solid inner core and the mantle.
It's outer boundary lies about 2,900 km beneath the Earth's surface.
The transition between the inner core and outer core is located approximately 5,150 km beneath Earth's surface.
The temperature of the outer core ranges from 4,400 C in the outer regions to 6,100 C near the inner core.
The Outer Core
The inner core of the Earth is a solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 kilometers, (according to seismological studies)
It consists of iron and nickel
Has about the same temperature as the surface of the sun, approximately 5,400 C.
The inner core is 5100 km to 6378 km below the surface
The Inner Core
Earth's above ground layers

Layers of the Earth - above and below
convection currents in the mantel
Convection Currents
Convection Currents

Hands Up
Layers of the Earth Foldable Homework March 2014
Full transcript