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Case Studies IR4099 2016/17

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Ryan Beasley

on 7 November 2016

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Transcript of Case Studies IR4099 2016/17

Single Case Studies
Case Selection & Comparative Case Studies
Examples
Source & Questions
Other Steps
Choosing Multiple Cases
Identify Factors from Theory
Types of Case Studies
The Traditional View of Case Studies
Case Studies
Case Studies: A Practical Approach
Identify Research Question
Case Study Defined
Commonly Used in IR
"not self consciously methodological" (Ragin, 1987)
Can Incorporate Other Methods
"Case" = Data Point; Instance
Case Study -- "Empirical examination of a real-world phenomenon, within its naturally occurring context, without directly manipulating either the phenomenon or the context" (Kaarbo & Beasley)
Purpose is not Specified (interpretation; causality, etc.)
Can be qualitative; can include quantitative
Idiosyncratic
Historically Specific
A-Theoretical (no theory)
Unable to Manipulate (no precision)
Small Number ('Small-N')
Subjective or Interpretive in Nature
Using Cases for Description
Using Theory to Explore Cases
Using Cases to Develop Theory
Deviant Cases (Lijphart, 1971)
Using Cases to Explore and Refine Theory
Using Cases as Test of Theory
Crucial Cases (Eckstein, 1975)
'How & Why' Questions; Not 'How Often'
What is this a case of?
Example: Intervention in Libya
Structured-Focused (George)
Extensive Literature Review
Primary Factors
Secondary Factors
Theory indicate most important factors?
Necessary or Sufficient?
'Precision' or 'Control' via Case Selection
Comparable Cases
Make them Similar Enough to Compare
They have to be Different ('Variation') in Some Way
Choose A & ~A
Be clear about how you draw your inferences
Present Cases
Humans are Really Bad at Some Interpretation
But, Humans are Exceptionally Good at Interpretation
We are 'Understanding' Machines!
Biases; Prejudices; Errors; Motives
Methods
Realism
Precision
Generalisability
Brinberg & McGrath
Control; Isolating Causality
Applies Across Population(s)
As it Happens in Context
Case Studies
Experiments
Statistical Analysis
of Big Data Sets
Content Analysis
Multiple Methods & Explanation
Surveys
You've Covered 'Epistemology' and 'Methodology'?
'Methods' are always related to questions of Epistemology
Can be, But Doesn't Have to
Be, All of These Things
K
J
3
4
Confirmation Bias!
Choosing Multiple Cases (Continued)
Maybe You Already Know the Outcome
Z and ~Z
Look for Differences in Ethic Cleavages
If we say "A-->Z"
A 'Meta-Method'
Works Across 'Methodological Perspectives'
Narrative form
Other forms
3 Uses of Process Tracing: A-->Z
(Beach & Pedersen, 2013)
'Process Tracing'
Tool to Study Causal Mechanisms in a Case
A
Z
?
'A' Appears to Lead to 'Z', but How?
Can Give Insight Into 'What is Going On' in a Case
Process Tracing Can Have Different Purposes
Why do you want to know what's going on?
Theory-Testing
Theory-Building
Explaining-Outcome
Did it Work in the Case as the Theory Said it Should? 'A should lead to Z in a particular way'
A
Z
A
Z
A
Z
B,D,Q Theory
B
D
Q
J
D
X
Yes
No
F
R
W
New Theory:
F,R,W Theory
No Theory
K
L
P
K,L,P Explains the Outcome 'Z' in This (Interesting) Case
Want to Build a Theory to Explain A-Z Relationship
Want to Explain Why 'Z' Happended (often a puzzle)
Why?
Hypothesis: on the Back of Every K there is a 3
Excellent Presentation
http://prezi.com/ujhf7tpflpwe/laura-brundts-case-studies-and-comparative-methods/?utm_source=website&utm_medium=prezi_landing_related_solr&utm_campaign=prezi_landing_related_author
Case Studies & Comparative Design
Case Study Methods Readings
Bennett, A., & Elman, C. (2006). Complex Causal Relations and Case Study Methods: The Example of Path Dependence. Political Analysis, (3), 250.
Detlef F. Sprinz & Yael Wolinsky-Nahmias (eds.). Models, numbers, and cases : methods for studying international relations. (2004). Ann Arbor : Univ. of Michigan Press, 2004.
Bennett, A. A., & Elman, C. C. (2006). Qualitative Research: Recent Developments in Case Study Methods. Annual Review Of Political Science -Palo Alto-, 9455-476.
Blatter, J. (2012). Designing case studies : explanatory approaches in small-N research. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Collier, D. (1995). Translating Quantitative Methods for Qualitative Researchers: The Case of Selection Bias. The American Political Science Review, (2), 461.
Falleti, T. G., & Lynch, J. F. (2009). Context and Causal Mechanisms in Political Analysis. Comparative Political Studies, 42(9), 1143-1166.
Beach, Derek & Pedersen, Rasmus Brun. 2013. Process-Tracing Method: Foundations and Guidelines. University of Michigan Press.
George, A. L., & Bennett, A. (2005). Case studies and theory development in the social sciences / Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett. Cambridge, Mass. ; London : MIT
Lijphart, Arend. 1971. Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method. American Political Science Review, 65 (3): 682-93.
Kaarbo, J., & Beasley, R. K. (1999). A Practical Guide to the Comparative Case Study Method in Political Psychology. Political Psychology, (2), 369.
Yin, Robert K. 2003. Case Study Research Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Van Evera, Stephen. 1997. Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Theory Testing
Theory Building
Explaining Outcome
Case Selection
Depends on the Purpose
Theory-Focused?
Case-Focused?
Crucial Case Study?
A Puzzling/Important Instance?
Develop Theory Further?
Cases Often Tell a Compelling Story!
Put in Table with Findings
Key Factors and How They Were Measured/Observed
Could Someone Else Use Your Sources and Draw Same Conclusions?
Important, but Often Overlooked
Questions?
Ethnic Cleavages Lead to Intensity of Genocide
Intense and Moderate Ethnic Cleavages, say
My Example for Today
Coalitions & Single Parties
Extremity of Foreign Policy
Democratic Peace Theory
Differ In Foreign Policy?
Juliet Kaarbo
My Example: Intensity of Genocide
Found Coalitions --> More Extreme
Statistical Tests
One Genocide case with Ethnic Cleavages, and One Without
...and Ryan Beasley
Example: History of Ethic Cleavages Intensifies Genocide
Case Studies & Methodologies
1) Compare two (or more) case studies (e.g. 'war' vs 'no war')
See what factors differed
Build a generalizable explanation of the causes of war
2) Examine a Case (e.g. Cuban Missile Crisis) to Improve Decision Making
Trace the Process of Deliberations and Debate
Develop Advice for Foreign Policy Makers
3) Explore prostitution around U.S. military bases in Korea (Moon)
Question why this is not part of national security theorizing
Give voice to marginalized women
Explore their understanding of their role in U.S.-Korea Relations
Less Theory
More Theory
Case Studies Can be Used in Different Methodologies
Case Study as Method
Today I'll Focus More on 'Explanatory & Generalizable' approaches
I will do some on other Methodologies -- Historical, Non-causal, etc.
Useful Knowledge
Subjective, Emancipatory & Critical
General Explanation
The More You Get of One
The Less You Get of the Other Two
Generalizable; Little Precision & Realism
Precision; Little Generalisability & Realism
Generalizable; Little Precision & Realism
(extracting data from texts)
Some Generalisability; Some Realism; Little Precision
Realism; Little Generalisability & Precision
Structured/Focused
NATO Strike? R2P? Traditional War?
'Why hasn't UN approved sanctions in this case?
'How did immigration law change over time in Britain?'
Not: 'How often does the U.S. spy on its allies?'
Turned the K
Turned the 3 (didn't you!)
Answer: Turn the 4, if K then Disconfirmed
Overview
Case Studies and Methodology
Case Studies, Generalisation, and Explanation
How to Use a Single Case Study
Comparative Case Study Designs
Examples
Case Studies can Minimize the Former and Maximize the Latter
K->L->P is one observed link between A and Z
Which Case Should You Study?
What do you Want to Know?
Case Selection
Case Selection & Theory
If the Case Matters Most to You...
...Choose a Theory
If the Theory Matters Most to You...
...Choose a Case
Don't Let the Tail Wag the Dog!
Multiple Cases?
What Can Two do that One Can't?
More Cases Leads to...
...Less Realism (detail)
...More Precision
...More Generalisability
Tend to be More Interested in Theory
Theory Helps with this Judgment
One is Very Intense, another abated part way through
Were there fewer ethnic cleavages in the case where the genocide abated, or not?
IR 4099: Case Studies and Comparative Case Study Design
Ryan K Beasley, PhD
?
Lots of Definitions
What Process is Involved?
Terrorism as Greed
Theory: 'Terrorism Propagates Because it is Lucrative'
Your Thesis: 'True, but may depend on State Strength'
You are Trying to Develop or Refine the 'Greed' Theory
Terrorists Profess 'Causes' but are Driven by 'Profits'
Using Case Studies
Difficult to get Aggregate Data (Generalisability)
Research Question not appropriate for Lab Experiments (Precision)
Why?
Strong States Might Make Profit-Seeking More Difficult
Want to Explore the Role of the State in Mediating Terrorist Causes
'Terrorism Greed' Design 1
Single Case Study
Examine the Role of the State
Pick an Interesting Case of Terrorism
Theory Tells you What to Examine
Process Tracing: Role of State in Mediating Terrorist Organisation
Very Cool!
It is Interesting, or Puzzling, Perhaps
e.g. Drug Trade, Corruption, Payments to Individuals
'Terrorism Greed' Design 2
Comparative Case Studies
Choose Comparable Cases
Islamic? Sub-Saharan Africa? Similar Causes?
Choose Cases on State Strength
One Strong(er), and One Weak(er)
Does Stronger State Influence Greed Motive or Success of the Terrorist Group?
One Controls Society Better, the Other Less So
Can Still Do Process Tracing
How Did it Work it Each Case?
Theory should tell you what matters most
'Terrorism Greed' Design 3
Comparative Case Studies
Choose Comparable Cases
Islamic? Sub-Saharan Africa? Similar Causes?
Choose Cases on Level of Greed Motive
One Terrorist Group Very Greed Oriented, the Other Less So
Is There a Different Role of the State in Each of These Cases?
Can Still Do Process Tracing
How Did it Work it Each Case?
Theory should tell you what matters most
'Terrorism Greed' Design 4
Comparative Case Studies
Choose Comparable Cases
Choose Cases on State Strength
One Strong(er), and One Weak(er)
Does Stronger State Influence Greed Motive of the Terrorist Group?
Can Still Do Process Tracing
within each case!
Maybe Time Matters?
'Groups will Evolve toward Greed'
Choose One New and One Old Terrorist Groups
Weak State
Strong State
Old
New
Weak State;
Old Group
Weak State;
New Group
Strong State;
Old Group
Strong State;
New Group
Does Age of the Group Relate to Greed Motive? How?
Does State Strength Interact with Age?
Beasley
Be the Dog! Wag Your Tail!
Valuable for Studies with Several Cases
Rich in Detail
Can be used with different Methodologies
Can be Systematic & Provide Some Precision and Generalisability
Can Have (More or Less) Theoretical Focus
Goodbye
(Alexander George)
One of the Real Strengths of Case Study Method (Detail; 'Realism')
Example: Economic Deprivation ('A') --> Terror Group Formation ('Z')
Why This Case?
You Should be able to Answer this Question!
Using Theory to Explore Cases?
Using Cases to Develop Theory?
Using Cases to Explore and Refine Theory?
Using Cases as Test of Theory?
Pick an Interesting/Important Case
Bureaucratic Politics to Explore Ukraine's Decision to Give up its nukes
Pick a Case that Existing Theories Don't Effectively Explain
How Does Social Media Affect Social Movements? The Case of Egypt
Pick an Interesting Case that Needs Explaining
Why wasn't Iraq Deterred from Invading Kuwait?
Pick a Case in Which the Theory Really Should Work
If Economic Dependency Theory is True, We Should See it in Mexico in the 1980s
Purpose of Case Study
Example
Realism
Precision
Generalisability
Brinberg & McGrath
Control; Isolating Causality
Applies Across Population(s)
As it Happens in Context
The More You Get of One
The Less You Get of the Other Two
(Interested in the case)
A & ~A
Z & ~Z
You were thinking 'ballroom dancing'...right?
Not
Morgenthau/Waltz/Mearsheimer/etc.
Notice?
More Theory
More Case (less Theory)
(e.g. social Protests)
(e.g. violent protests)
(e.g.leaders organise)
Full transcript