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Using Visual Supports With Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Article found in Teaching Exceptional Children July/August 2011 Vol.43 Number 6 By: Hedda Meadan, Michaelene M. Ostrosk
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Carly Poe

on 15 March 2013

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Transcript of Using Visual Supports With Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Article found in "Teaching Exceptional Children" July/August 2011 Vol.43 Number 6 By: Hedda Meadan, Michaelene M. Ostrosky, Brooke Triplett, Amanda Michna, Angel Fettig Autism Spectrum Disorder Visual Representations Real Objects Line Drawings Words Photographs Visual Supports ASD is made up of a group of
developmental disabilities characterized by
atypical development in socialization,
communication, and behavior.
(American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
ASD is estimated to effect 1 in ever 91
children ages 3-17 in the united states,
which is up from 2003 when every 1 in
150 children were effected. Visual Representations are used to create visual supports.
Different types of visual representations used for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder include:
Real Objects
Photographs
Line Drawings
Words Using real objects as a representation for students includes taking a real object and connecting it to a relevant activity or environment.
This is beneficial for students with ASD because it helps them to make a concrete connection between the object and the activity while also allowing them to feel in control.
The use of real objects is the most concrete form of representation for students with ASD.
The use of real objects can be difficult for teachers/parents to organize and transport, and can cause the Student to stand out from peers. Using photographs as a visual representation includes taking pictures, clip art, or digital photos to represent the routines and expected activities of the child with ASD.
This form of visual representations can be individualized for the child by using pictures specifically taken for them. (EX. Picture of the students desk in the class)
Individualizing photographs can be time consuming for teachers/parents, but it is an effective form of visual representations. Line drawings can be created by
free hand or by computer program. Line drawing software can be very
effective for creating visual aids, however,
these programs can be very expensive.
Another difficulty with the use of line drawings is that some parents will have a different idea of what symbols are considered appropriate for their children. Using words from representation can be done in multiple ways. Words can be used alone or with pictures.
The use of pictures with words can help to transition students from object, and/or picture visuals to word-only visuals.
Using words can help teachers and parents to use like vocabulary when working with the student. Visual supports are a non-intrusive support for children with ASD that can be easily individualized for the student.
When creating visual supports teachers/parents must consider the form or mode of visual supports to be used with the individual child.
Visual Supports can be:
Static: Print-only or object based supports
Dynamic: Use of multimedia supports along with visual input
Interactive: use of multimedia requiring involvement of the child.
When creating visuals, teachers and parents must consider:
Cost
Preparation time
Comfort level of teachers and parents with form of support
Availability of staff to teach form of support to the child and other adults. Using Visual Supports With
Young Children With Autism
Spectrum Disorder Types of visual supports used
with children with Autism Spectrum
Disorder include:
Visual Schedules
Visuals to Structure the Environment
Visual Scripts
Rule Reminder Cards
Visual Task Analysis Visual Supports Visual schedules can be helpful for students with ASD by providing them with a way to anticipate the order of the day’s events and by allowing them to have a sense of independence.
When using visual schedules, we take the first/then approach in which the student must finish one task before moving onto the next.
Visual schedules can be used in a variety of ways including:
Illustrating the activity taking place
Specify the activity coming up next
To show when an activity will be finished
To identify changes to the normal schedule Visual Schedules When used in a natural environment, visuals to structure the environment can:
Allow for students with ASD to be more independent
Allow for students not to rely on others to tell them what to do all the time
Promote structure and predictability
Provide students with a sense of stability
Visuals can be used for organization by labeling specific areas for different things in the classroom and at home. This allows for the child to put things away without the help of others. (EX. A label on a self to specify which object belongs on that shelf.)
Visuals can also be used to identify which tasks are completed in each location. Visuals to Structure
the Environment Visual scripts are used to help students with ASD to navigate and understand social situations, solve problems, and prepare them for conversation.
Visual scripts are usually in the form of a written scenario, or skit meant to help students with ASD with conversations and interactions with others.
Visual scripts help students who shows signs of social avoidance, social indifference, or social awkwardness with developing important social skills.
One of the most common forms of visual scripts is a social story. Social stories are used when a student does not fully understand a social situation to show students appropriate social behaviors.
Other popular visual scripts include social scripts and comic strip conversations. Visual Scripts Rule reminder cards are used to remind students of the behaviors that are expected of them in a variety of different situations.
Rule reminder cards allow students a place to look for what are appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and what consequences will result from those behaviors.
Rule cards can look a variety of ways including:
One picture or symbol
Several pictures or symbols
Pictures of acceptable behaviors. Rule Reminder Cards Visual task analysis is a step-by-step visual for
students which allows them to complete
a task independently without prompting. These can be used for simple tasks or more
complex multiple step procedures.
Visual task analysis is beneficial for students
who have a difficult time with remembering
the order of multiple step processes. Visual Task Analysis
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