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Spanish verb conjugation. (comparison chart)

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Monica Barquet

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of Spanish verb conjugation. (comparison chart)

Verb
Tenses mmmm Imperfect Present Preterite mmmm mmmm mmmm mmmm mmmm Present progressive Infinitive ~ Infinitivo

The infinitive is the basic, unconjugated form of a verb, sometimes called the name of the verb. In English the infinitive is to + verb: to talk, to eat, to leave, etc. The Spanish infinitive is a single word with one of the following endings: -ar, -er, or -ir: hablar, comer, salir, etc. We usually learn Spanish verbs in the infinitive, since that is what you start with in order to conjugate them.
Spanish infinitives are divided into two parts: the ending and the stem. The ending is the last two letters. Remember, all infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir. The stem is everything that's left after you remove the ending.
habl + ar = hablar
com + er = comer
viv + ir = vivir

The Spanish infinitive is often translated to the English present participle, as you'll see in the examples below.
El infinitivo can be used several different ways without any conjugation. I. As a noun - the subject or object of a sentence
Mentir no es buena idea. (Lying is not a good idea.)
Aprender es importante. (Learning is important.)

II. After a conjugated verb, the infinitive can be used
A. With a preposition
Vamos a estudiar. (We're going to study.)
Acabo de salir. (I just left.)
Salgamos depués de comer. (Let's leave after eating.)
La biblioteca es perfecta para estudiar. (The library is perfect for studying.)
B. Without a preposition
Me gusta bailar. (I like dancing.)
Prefieren venir con nosotros. (They prefer coming with us.)
Los vi jugar. (I saw them play.)
C. With 'que'
Tienes que comer. You have to eat.
Hay mucho que hacer. There's a lot to do.

III. In place of the subjunctive when the main clause has:
A. the same subject as the subordinate clause
Tiene miedo que llegué tarde* ==> Tiene miedo de llegar tarde. He's afraid of arriving late.
Estoy contenta que tenga razón* ==> Estoy contenta de tener razón. I'm happy to be right.
*These are grammatically incorrect. When the subject is the same, you *must* use the infinitive.
B. an impersonal subject (if the subject is implied)
Es importante que trabajes ==> Es importante trabajar. It's important to work.
No es necesario que vengan ==> No es necesario venir. It's not necessary that they come (They don't need to come). The infinitive is the base form of the verb, such as to speak, to eat, to live, etc. In Spanish, all infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir.
-ar verb
hablar (to speak)
-er verb
comer (to eat)
-ir verb
vivir (to live)

We will use three model verbs with the 1st person: hablar, comer, and vivir. In Spanish, you conjugate verbs by changing the ending. If the subject is I (yo), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -o.
yo hablo (hablar - ar + o = hablo)
I speak, I am speaking, I do speak

yo como (comer - er + o = como)
I eat, I am eating, I do eat

yo vivo (vivir - ir + o = vivo)
I live, I am living, I do live Infinitive verbs Infinitive verbs Present The preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed. You learned how to conjugate regular -ar verbs. Now, you will learn how to conjugate -er and -ir verbs, and become more familiar with the uses of the preterite.
To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:
é
aste
ó
amos
asteis
aron

To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following:
í
iste

imos
isteis
ieron Preterite (Past) We use the present simple tense when:

the action is general
the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
the action is not only happening now
the statement is always true
Examples:

I live in New York.
The Moon goes round the Earth.
John drives a taxi.
He does not drive a bus.
We meet every Thursday.
We do not work at night.
Do you play football?

John drives a taxi.
past present future

It is John's job to drive a taxi. He does it every day. Past, present and future.

Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the present simple tense for situations that are not general. We can use the present simple tense to talk about now. Look at these examples of the verb "to be" in the present simple tense - some of them are general, some of them are now:

Am I right?
Tara is not at home.
You are happy.
past present future

The situation is now.
I am not fat.
Why are you so beautiful?
Ram is tall.
past present future

The situation is general. Past, present and future. The preterite is used for actions that can be viewed as single events.

Ella caminó por el parque.
She walked through the park.

Ellos llegaron a las ocho.
They arrived at eight o'clock.

The preterite is used for actions that were repeated a specific number of times, or occurred during a specific period of time.

Ayer escribí tres cartas.
Yesterday I wrote three letters.

Vivimos allí por cuatro años.
We lived there for four years.

The preterite is used for actions that were part of a chain of events.

Ella se levantó, se vistió, y salió de la casa.
She got up, dressed, and left the house.



The preterite is used to state the beginning or the end of an action.

Empezó a nevar a las ocho de la mañana.
It began to snow at eight in the morning. Present progressive The present progressive is formed by combining the verb "to be" with the present participle. (The present participle is merely the "-ing" form of a verb.)
I am studying.
I am studying with María.

In English, present progressive can be used to describe what is happening now, or what will happen in the future.
I am studying now.
I am studying with María tonight.

In Spanish, the present progressive is only used to describe an action that is in the process of taking place. It is not used for future actions.
I am studying now.
(use present progressive)

I am studying with María tonight.
(do not use present progressive)

To form the present progressive in Spanish, combine a form of "estar" with the present participle.
Estoy hablando.
I am speaking.

Juan está comiendo.
John is eating.

María está escribiendo una carta.
Mary is writing a letter. In order to form the present progressive, you must know how to conjugate the verb estar, and how to form the present participle. You already know how to conjugate the verb estar:
estar
estoy
estás
está
estamos
estáis
están

To form the present participle of regular -ar verbs, add -ando to the stem of the verb.
hablar: hablando
(hablar - ar + ando)

To form the present participle of regular -er and -ir verbs, add -iendo to the stem of the verb.
comer: comiendo
(comer - er + iendo)

To form the present participle of -ir stem changing verbs, change e:i and o:u in the stem, and then add -iendo to the stem of the verb.

Sometimes when forming the present participle it is necessary to change the spelling of a word so that it agrees with the way it is pronounced. We call this an "orthographic" change. Here are some common examples:
caer: cayendo creer: creyendo huir: huyendo ir: yendo seguir: siguiendo
influir: influyendo oír: oyendo traer: trayendo leer: leyendo

The following examples illustrate the rules for forming the present participle.

hablar: hablando (-ar)
comer: comiendo (-er)
vivir: viviendo (-ir)
decir: diciendo (e:i)
dormir: durmiendo (o:u)
leer: leyendo (orthographic)
seguir: siguiendo (orthographic)

To form the present progressive, simply conjugate the verb estar to agree with the subject of the sentence, and follow it with the present participle.

Juan está comiendo pan.
John is eating bread.

María y Carmen están hablando con nosotros.
Mary and Carmen are speaking with us.

It is important to remember that you would never use the present progressive to say something like "We are going to Spain this summer." Use present progressive only for actions that are "in progress."

Present Progressive

estar + present participle
I am speaking (right now, at this moment)
Never use present progressive for something that will occur in the future.

Present Participle (-ando, -iendo, yendo)

hablar - hablando (-ar)
comer - comiendo (-er)
vivir - viviendo (-ir)
decir - diciendo (e:i)
dormir - durmiendo (o:u)
leer - leyendo (orthographic)
seguir: siguiendo (orthographic) Imperfect The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly.

I used to walk every day.
Yo caminaba cada día.


The imperfect tense is also used to refer to actions in the past that occurred over an extended period of time.

I used to eat paella frequently.
Yo comía frecuentemente paella.



The imperfect tense is also used to "set the stage" for an event that occurred in the past.

We were coming home when we saw Juan.
Veníamos para casa cuando vimos a Juan.



Actions which are not physical, that is feelings and mental actions, usually use the imperfect tense.

Juan was feeling sick.
Juan estaba enfermo. The imperfect is frequently associated with phrases that describe the frequency of past actions.

a menudo
often

a veces
sometimes

cada día
every day

cada año
every year

con frecuencia
frequently

de vez en cuando
from time to time

en aquella época
at that time

frecuentemente
frequently


todo el tiempo
all the time generalmente
usually

muchas veces
many times

mucho
a lot

nunca
never

por un rato
for awhile

siempre
always

tantas veces
so many times

todas las semanas
every week

todos los días
every day


varias veces
several times Regular forms of the imperfect are formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb:


-ar verbs example: hablar
aba hablaba
abas hablabas
aba hablaba
ábamos hablábamos
abais hablabais
aban hablaban

-er verbs, -ir verbs example: vivir
ía vivía
ías vivías
ía vivía
íamos vivíamos
íais vivíais
ían vivían Only three verbs are irregular in the imperfect:
ser ver ir
era veía iba
eras veías ibas
era veía iba
éramos veíamos íbamos
erais veíais ibais
eran veían iban mmmm mmmm mmmm mmmm mmmmm mmmm mmmm The infinitive is the base form of the verb, such as to speak, to eat, to live, etc. In Spanish, all infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir. -ar verb
hablar (to speak) er verb
comer (to eat) -ir verb
vivir (to live) The preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed.

To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:
é
aste
ó
amos
asteis
aron

To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following:
í
iste

imos
isteis
ieron We use the present simple tense when:

the action is general
the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
the action is not only happening now
the statement is always true INFINITIVE PRETERITE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE In English, present progressive can be used to describe what is happening now, or what will happen in the future.

I am studying now.
(use present progressive)

I am studying with María tonight.
(do not use present progressive) The imperfect is used for past actions that are not seen as completed. Use of the imperfect tense implies that the past action did not have a definite beginning or a definite end.
The imperfect is used for past actions that are not seen as completed.

To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:
aba
abas
aba
ábamos
abais
aban

To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following:
ía
ías
ía
íamos
íais
ían

The imperfect is used:
For actions that were repeated habitually.
For actions that "set the stage" for another action.
For telling time and stating one's age. IMPERFECT



The past progressive tense is a compound tense used to talk about ongoing action in
the past that uses an auxiliary verb in the imperfect tense combined with the present participle of a second verb
.
The auxiliary verb is the first verb in the tense that precedes (goes before) the participle.
The most common auxiliary verb is estar. Some other auxiliary verbs used in the past progressive are: andar, seguir, ir and venir.

estar (imperfecto) + participio presente (-ando o–iendo)

To illustrate this, think of the equivalent to the past progressive in English:

to be (past tense) + the –ing form of a verb



Yo estaba comiendo Nostros estábamos estudiando

It is important to remember that the progressive tenses are used much more frequently in English than in Spanish. This tense is often used to stress or exaggerate the ongoing action in the past. PAST PROGRESSIVE Yo hablé yo comí yo viví yo hablo yo como yo vivo yo estoy hablando yo estoy comiendo yo estoy viviendo yo estaba hablando yo estaba comiendo yo estaba viviendo yo comía yo vivía yo hablaba INFINITIVE PRESENT PAST PRESENT PROGRESSIVE IMPERFECT PAST PROGRESSIVE
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