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Copy of Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank
Transcript of Copy of Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank
SENTENCE BLANK - Sentence Completion Test
- semi structured projective technique in which the subject is asked to finish a sentence for which the first word or words are supplied. RISB was developed by Julian Rotter and Benjamin Willerman in the early 1940s as a means of screening large groups of soldiers to evaluate adjustment and fitness to return to duty and to obtain specific information for evaluation and treatment. The original RISB was published in 1950, and the most recent revisions, including
separate forms for clients in high school, college and adulthood, were published in 1992. Measuring both adjustment and maladjustment is a chief aim of thee RISB, with the goal of identifying both the presence and the relative absense of psychopathology. Therefore, the RISB is intended help guide an initial clinical interview, formulate a diagnosis and arrive at a treatment plan, rather than provide a comprehensive evaluation of the personality dynamics. PURPOSES This over-all adjustment score is of particular value for screening purposes with college students and in experimental studies. The ISB has also been used in a vocational guidance center to select students requiring broader counseling than was usually given, in experimental studies of the effect of psychotherapy and in investigations of the relationship of adjustment to a variety of variables. RISB in Comparison with: Word Association Sack's Sentence Completion there is no demand on the repondent for an immediate response. Thus, similar to the TAT, the responses people give are usually what they are willing to give, rather than what they cannot help but give. - in the length of the stimulus, relatively short
- you can twist and block the meaning of the stimulus TAT and Rorschach visual stimuli, whereas the stimuli in the RISB are written sentence stems TEST: ADMINISTRATION, SCORING,
NORMS, VALIDITY, RELIABILITY - 40 item test composed of sentence stems
- 20-40 minute administration RISB-College form was normed on representative samples of 299 first-year college students at OHIO State University In the manual for the most recent edition of the RISB, 1992, new norms was based on data collection from three studies conducted between 1977 and 1988. NORMS VALIDITY Compared to other projective tests, sentence completion tests have been described as one of the most valid among SCT's, the RISB has the most consistent evidence supporting its use in the diagnosis and assessment of adjustment. Initial studies of Rotter and colleagues indicated that the RISB was able to correctly identify 78% of the adjusted repondents and 59% of the maladjusted respondents for women and 89% of adjusted and 52% maladjusted respondents for men. In terms of Face Validity, RISB was constructed with low face validity, which is a test attribute in keeping with the SCT orientation towards uncovering latent personality characteristics of which an individual maybe unaware or unwilling to divulge directly RELIABILITY The RISB manual reports adequate internal consistency, stability and interrater agreement. Because the RISB is designed to sample broad content areas, assessing the internal consistency of the measure yields only conserative estimate of its reliability. However the RISB still yields moderate reliability values for both half-split reliability estimate and Cronbach's alpha. Split-half estimates for different forms of RISB range from .74 to .84 in males and .83 to .86 for females. Cronbach's alpha was .69 for a sample of college men. Thus moderate internal consistency is evident in spite of the RISB's diverse content. In terms of inter-scorer reliability, the original validity study of RISB found coefficient of .91 for males and .96 for females. Since that time, such estimates have been replicated in the literature, and the coefficients of agreement have ranged from as high as .99 to a low of .72 SCORING An overall score of 145 is generally perceived as the cutoff score for identifying significant adjustment issues. However, as Rotter point out, this cutoff score is not absolute as an index of psychopathology; rather, it should be used as a guide in the clinical judgement process. A formal scoring system exist for the RISB, but some assessors choose not to use it, and clinical judgement typically plays significant role in scoring. Thus, like that of the TAT, its scientific standing is questioned by those who insist on tests with establishedreliability and validity. As such, the RISB is often used to complement other personality measures and to provide more personal details about the psychological problems of a particular client. THANK YOU Advantages:
1. Freedom of Response
2. Some disguise in the purpose of the test is present
3. Group administration is relatively efficient.
4. No special training is ordinarily necessary for administration
5.The method is extremely flexible in that new sentence beginnings can be constructed or tailor made for a variety of clinical, applied and experimental purposes Disadvantages:
1. Susceptible to semi-objective scoring, it cannot be machine scored and requires general skill and knowledge of personality analysis for clinical appraisal and interpretation.
2. There is not as much disguise of purpose as in other projective methods. Consequently, sophisticated subject may be able to keep the examiner from knowing what he does not wish to reveal. 3. Insufficient material is obtained in some cases, particularly from illiterate, disturbed or uncooperative subjects. Application of the method as a group test also requires writing and language skills and has not yet been adequately evaluated for potential clinical usefulness for younger children. SCORING: Omission Response: Not Scored “C” or conflict, responses are those indicating an un healthy or maladjusted frame of mind. These include hostility reactions, pessimism, symptom elicitation, hopelessness and suicidal wishes, statements of unhappy experiences, and indications of past maladjustment.
Responses range from C1 to C3 according to the severity of the conflict or maladjusted expressed. The numerical weights for the conflict responses are C1 (4) = Typical of the C1 category are responses in which concern is expressed regarding such things as the world state of affairs, financial problems, specific school difficulties, physical complaints, identification with minority groups, and so on. In general it might be said that subsumed under C1 are minor problems which are not deep-seated or incapacitating, and more or less specific difficulties. C2 (5) = More serious indications of maladjustment are found in the C2 category. On the whole the responses refer to broader, more generalized difficulties than are found in C1. I Included here are expressions of inferiority feelings, psychosomatic complaints, concern over possible failure, generalized school problems, lack of goals, feeling of inadequacy, concern over vocational choice, and difficulty in heterosexual relationships as well as generalized social difficulty. C3 (6) = Expression of severe conflict or indications of maladjustments are rated C3. Among the difficulties found in this area are suicidal wishes, sexual conflicts, severe family problems, fear of insanity, strong negative attitudes toward people in general, feelings of confusion, expression of rather bizarre attitudes, and so forth. “P” or positive responses are those indicating a healthy or hopeful frame of mind. These are evidence by humorous or flippant remarks, optimistic responses, and acceptance reactions. Responses range from P1to P3 depending on the degree of good adjustment expressed in the statement. The numerical weights for the positive responses are P1 (2) = In the P1 class common responses are those which deal with positive attitudes toward school, hobbies, sports, expression interest in people, expression of warm feeling toward some individual and so on. P2 (1) =Generally found under the heading of P2 are those replies which indicate a generalized positive feeling toward people, good social adjustment, healthy family life, optimism and humor. P3 (0) = Clear cut good natured humor, real optimism, and warm acceptance are types of responses which are subsumed under the P3 group. The ISB deviates from the majority of the test in that it scores humorous responses. NEUTRAL RESPONSES
“N” or neutral responses are those not falling clearly into either of the above categories. They are generally on a simple descriptive level. Two general types of responses which account for a large share of those that fall in the neutral category. One group includes those lacking emotional tone or personal reference. The other group is composed of many responses which are found as often among maladjusted as among adjusted individual and through clinical judgment could no be legitimately place in either C or P group. All the N responses are scored 3. For example, “Most girls . . . are females” or “When I was child . . . I spoke as a child”. These types of responses will lie in neutral responses. RELATIVELY LONG RESPONSES
Additional Point (+1)