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CRITICAL RACE THEORY
Transcript of CRITICAL RACE THEORY
Each individual has ability to tell an unique story through a narrative (Ladson-Billings, 1995)
Committed to social justice (Hylton, 2010))
Individuals can be a members of intersecting groups (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995)
Examination of power differentials and advocate for the marginalized (Ortiz & Jani, 2010)
Understanding of equality versus equity in education (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995)
Race and Racism are permanent components of American society
Challenge Dominant Ideology
Commitment to Social Justice
"Race and racism are so embedded in society that it appears 'normal'" (Glesne, 2011).
Challenges "the claim of neutrality, objectivity, color-blindness and meritocracy" (Lee, 2008) (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995).
Maintains the value of the first person narrative (Lee, 2008) or "critical race story" (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995).
Needs to be placed in both "a contemporary and historical context" (Lee, 2008).
Committed to "eliminating all forms of subordination of people" (Lee, 2008).
"Carefully researched issues that analyze and reveal social injustices" (Saldana, 2011)
"Critiques historical and structural conditions of oppression" (Glesne, 2011)
"Action or restoration efforts to work for change that will benefit the oppressed" (Saldana, 2011)
"Standpoint epistemologies" - "groups that [have] been traditionally oppressed or excluded (women, gays, lesbians, people of color, colonized, etc.)" (Glesne, 2011)
"Discourse is embedded in (and controlled by) rhetorical and political purpose" (Lather, 2006)
"Praxis" - "relationships between thought and action, theory and practice" (Glesne, 2011)
CRITICAL RACE FEMINISM (CRF)
"An emergent tool in the field of education" (Lee, 2008).
"Curriculum represents a form of 'intellectual property;' therefore, the quality and quantity of the curriculum varies with the 'property values' of the school (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995).
Multicultural education movement and multiculturalism, a political philosophy of "many cultures" (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995).
"A critique of both the status quo and the purported reforms" (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995).
CRT and EDUCATION
Analytic tool for understanding school inequity.
Examine campus racial climate, curriculum, instruction, funding, student resistance, and desegregation.
Analyze barriers and racial climate for Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Americans.
Examine race and racism in higher education (Lee, 2008).
Identify cultural practices that are sanctioned as they do not conform to "white norms" (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995).
Analyze systems and practices that have "social, cultural, and economic privileges" embedded in them (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995).
Carter G. Woodson
- began in 1916 to "establish the legitmacy of race" (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995)
W.E.B. Du Bois
- developed the idea of "double consciousness" (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995)
- focus on conditions of racial inequality (Bell, 2011)
Angela Harris and Derrick Bell
- "radical critique of the law (which is normatively deconstructionist) and. . .radical emancipation of the law (which is normatively (reconstructionist)" (Harris, 1994)
Cheryl Harris and Gloria J. Ladson-Billings
- whiteness as a property (Harris, n.d.)(Ladson-Billings, 1995)
Patricia Williams, Kimberle' Williams Crenshaw, and Mari Matsuda
- critique of CLS of focus on sources of racial oppression (Williams, 1999)(Crenshaw, 2011)(Matsuda, 2014)
- victims of racism see themselves as inferior (Pyke, 2010)
Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancik
- identified themes of CRT (Delgado & Stefancik, 2011)
Daniel Solorzano, Miguel Ceja, and Tara Yosso
- Latin CRT (Solorzano & Yosso, 2001)
Based on the "premise that society is fundamentally racially stratified and unequal" (Hylton, 2012)
U.S. society is based on property rights (Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995)
Extends from law, legal theories, and social sciences (Lee, 2008)(Ladson-Billings & Tate IV, 1995)
Framework that focuses on social structures and institutions (Ortiz & Jani, 2010)
Analyzes power relationships (Glesne, 2011)
Intersection of multiple identities (Ortiz & Jani, 2010)
Often uses storytelling or counter-storytelling (Hylton, 2012)
CRITICAL RACE STUDIES
Reliance on narrative/storytelling (Pyle, 1999, Citing Posner, 1992)
Lack of objectivity (Pyle, 1999, Citing Posner, 1992)
Anti-Semitic and Anti-Asian implications (Bell, 1995, Citing Farber & Sherry, 1993)
"Grievance ideology" (Wood, 2012)
Fails to recognize individuals of color that are successful (Bankston, 2012)
More Educational Developments
Introduction of multicultural education and multiethnic education (Wallace, 2012) (Goodwin, 1997)
The Beginning of CRT
Angela Harris and Derrick Bell (Wallace, 2012) (Bell, 1992)
Teaching CRT in Higher Education
More than 20 U.S. Law Schools offer CRT courses or classes which cover the issue (Harris, 2002) (Delgado, 2011)
Political Science, Women's Studies, Ethnic Issues, American Studies
Tuscon Arizona (Winerip, 2012) (Wald, 2012)
Colorblindness (Wikipedia, 2014) (Ansell, 2008)
Chief Justice John Roberts (Wikipedia, 2014)
Effective media strategies on anti-slavery
Effective lobbying of Legislature (Tyler, 2014)
African Americans developed their own culture in education. (Wallace 2012)