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History of classroom management

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Johann Somerville

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of History of classroom management

Classroom techniques and strategies teachers use to :
Engage students in the learning process
Provide effective learning experiences
Create safe, caring, and positive classroom environments
Control student behavior
Build positive student relationships
Classroom Management
Data-Based Research and Analysis
Humanistic Psychology
Corporal Punishment
: Refers to disciplinary action that is physical in nature and delivered by teachers or school administrators as punishment for some type of student misbehavior. Students would be stricken with wooden paddle, slipper, leather strap or wooden yardstick.

Rote Discipline
: Used to punish misbehaving students. It involves students writing classroom rules or sentences about their negative action repeatedly.

Bureaucratic Discipline
: Teachers blended traditional teaching techniques and bureaucratic discipline strategies to manage classrooms (Moore, 2008). Extrinsic motivation was enforced through the display of wooden paddles, and other punishment devices.


Brief History of Classroom Management
Renowned Learning Theorist of the 1930's and 1940's
Emphasized his research on how an organism learns.
He saw learning as a result of associations formed between stimuli and actions, and or impulses to act (Kaliska, 2002).
Believed rewarding students for good behavior and ignoring or punishing wrong behavior, students would come to understand how to behave in a classroom environment (Kaliska, 2002).
He theorized that behaviors that were rewarded would be repeated and negative behaviors would be avoided.
Skinner's research led to the development of Behavior-modification techniques in the classroom (Kaliska, 2002).
History of Classroom Management
By Johann Somerville
MTE 523
Connie Raaz

Models
Tom Gordan's (1974) Teacher Effectiveness Training: which provided teachers with techniques for responding to students' misbehavior with open communication and problem solving.
William Glasser's
Reality Therapy:
Model posited the belief that students need caring teachers willing to help them take responsibility for their behavior and develop plans aimed at altering unproductive behavior.
Robert Dreikurs and Associates: Developed a model that posited children who act out made poor choices because of inappropriate notions of how to meet their basic need to be accepted (Jones & Jones, 2013). This model aided teachers by providing strategies for identifying the causes of student misbehavior, responding to misbehavior with logical consequences (Jones & Jones, 2013).
Over the years models focusing on students needs and problem solving continued to flourish.
(Google Flicker)
B.F. Skinner
Image courtesy of
indigozen.com/?p=575
Jacob Kounin (1970): Conducted the first, high profile, large scale, systematic study of classroom management. (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003).

Results identified several critical dimensions of effective classroom management:

Withitnesss or a keen awareness of disruptive behavior or potentially disruptive behavior and immediate attention to that behavior.
smoothness and momentum during lesson presentations.
letting students know what behavior is expected of them at any given point in time.
variety and challenge in the seatwork assigned to students.
(Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003)
Data Based Research and analysis (continued)
Jere Brohy and Carolyn Everston (1976)
Texas Teachers Effectiveness Study was the second landmark study dealing with organizing and managing student behavior.

Results supported Kounin's findings on effective behaviors that prevented disruptions and facilitated learning by creating smoothly run classrooms (Jones & Jones, 2013).
Study was a comparison of exceptional teachers with average teachers (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003).
Even though the study focused on a variety of teaching behaviors, classroom management surfaced as one of the critical aspects (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003).

These studies set the stage for research and practice in classroom management through the 1990's (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003). Over the next 20-30 years these studies were expanded upon by researchers.


Where Is Classroom Management Now
Many types of classroom management have evolved from past research:
Madeline Hunter's Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP)
Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1999)
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Place-Based Education
Time-out procedures
Canter and Canter's (1976) Assertive Discipline.
Fred Jones (1987) Behavioral Control
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
PAX Good Behavior Game
Current Focus on Order, Caring, Power, and types of Discipline
Natural Authority
Arbitrary or Role based Authority
Discipline plans
Democratic Classrooms
Traditional, liberal progressive, and socially critical authority


Cultural Perspectives
"The multicultural education approach, or cultural democracy, attempts to redesign classrooms and schools to model an unoppressive, equal society which is usually culturally diverse." (Sleeter, 1991)
Effective Classroom management in a culturally diverse classroom requires empowerment and multicultural education to be interwoven (Jones & Jones, 2013).
By achieving and receiving validation for who they are students are empowered for who they are (Sleeter, 1991).
Sergiovanni posits that strategies need to be aimed at helping classrooms become democratic communities (Sergiovanni, 1994).
Teachers cultural backgrounds and personal history play a role in classroom management decisions (Jones & Jones, 2013)
Students cultural backgrounds and associated values and beliefs need to be considered when teacher make decisions about classroom structure and discipline.
Management plans
Lee Canter's (1996) states that to be successful a good discipline plan should be built on a foundation of mutual trust and respect (Canter, 1996. cited in Jones & Jones, 2013).

Management plans establish firm, clear guidelines for student behavior and follow through with consequences for negative behaviors.
The plan incorporates class rules with positive and negative consequences.
Management plans establish the teacher as consistent, fair, that he/she sticks to their word, and that they care (Jones & Jones, 2013).
As consistent as management plans are, some students will still disagree with class rules and procedures. By establishing guidelines teachers have a consistent course of action to follow when dealing with student misbehavior.
Modern Classrooms
From an outsiders point of view the modern classroom can seem chaotic, distracting, and ruled by the students. Over the course of the last 50 plus years, research has lead to break throughs that changed classroom dynamics. When teachers assess discipline strategies today they consider interpersonal relationships, and organizational and instructional changes that can be made in the classroom to increase positive student behavior and learning (Jones & Jones, 2013).

In comparison to traditional classroom designs, the modern teacher can be perceived as having less authority. This is do to the way personal responsibility has become ingrained into classroom management plans. As democratic ideals get infused in classroom design, the students have been given more control over their education and learning.
image courtesy of google flicker

Humanistic psychology emerged during the 1950s as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, which dominated psychology at the time (Cherry, 2014).
Psychological focus on personal growth and awareness
Humanistic psychology was instead focused on each individual's potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization (Cherry, 2014).
The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology is that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from this natural tendency (Cherry, 2014).
Methods developed focused on understanding students problems and helping them better understand themselves and work cooperatively with adults to develop more productive behaviors (Jones & Jones, 2013).
Emphasis most obvious in the models of self-concept theorists (Jones & Jones, 2013).
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