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World War 2 -Hannah Spurr
Transcript of World War 2 -Hannah Spurr
Kingdom Spain Portugal Italy Ireland Belgium Luxemburg Switzerland Austria Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia Slovenia Ukraine Romania Serbia Bulgaria Croatia Bosnia Monte Negro Macedonia Albania Belorussia Norway Sweden Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Moldavia Greece Turkey Iceland Syria Iraq Iran Saudi Arabia Jordan Israel Lebanon Cyprus Greenland Tasmania New Zealand Mongolia Kazakhstan Pakistan Nepal Afghanistan Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Yeman Oman Kuwait United Arab Emirates Mexico Brazil Paraguay C h i l e Argentina Bolivia Peru Ecuador Columbia Venezuela Uruguay Egypt Algeria Libya Tunisia Morocco Sri Lanka Bangladesh Burma Bhutan Thailand Cambodia Laos Vietnam Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Papua New Guinea Philippines Taiwan North Korea South
Korea 1919 Treaty of Versailles On the 28th of June 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed in France. It marked the end of World War I. The League of Nations (United States, Britain, France and Italy) made the terms. Germany copped the worst of the consequences. They lost territory they once had, their military force was restricted to few men, they were forced to take full blame for damages and loss caused by the war and had to pay the rebuilding costs for their neighbouring countries; this was known as Reparation. When German delegates finally signed the Treaty they broke the pen in disapproval. 1939 On the 23rd of August, after failing to make a military alliance with Britain and France, The Soviet Union decided to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany. This was because they did not want war with them. World War II IN IN The treaty of Versailles didn’t leave Germany in a good place, they were humiliated.
Germany owed a lot of money to other countries which obviously wouldn’t help their country. Whatever Germany produced they had to give away. This made them so broke that money was hardly worth anything. Germany was in hyperinflation, the hyperinflation was at its peak by 1923.
With Germany in its poor state, Hitler knew just what to do to get people to believe in him. He gave hope where they needed it, showed support and leadership but most of all he blamed others for the position Germany was in. Hitler was exceptionally good at what he did, he was a born leader with the skills to speak, persuade and manipulate his people. Because of this non-aggression pact, Hitler could now invade Poland without risk of the Soviet Union retaliating. On the 1st of September 1939 Germany invaded Poland, but to its surprise France and Britain declared war on them. Hitler wanted war with the eastern side of Europe but instead he had provoked war with the Western European powers. 1931 IN Before World War II Japan had already began its advance:
Japan’s Army (Kwangtung) invaded Manchuria, China on the 19th of September 1931.
They bombed the railway in which the Japanese actually owned, they then blamed China, and moved in to Protect its railway stating China couldn't look after it. This helped Japan begin to gain power throughout Asia. On the 7th of December 1941 Pearl Harbour was bombed by the Japanese. Destroying one of America's military bases. The following day America declared war on Japan. VS 1941 IN On the 8th of December 1941 Japan bombed Singapore and Malaysia; Britain’s and Australia’s military bases.
This initiated war between Australia and the Japanese. By Hannah Spurr This was the beginning of World War II 1933-1945 Germans believed they were racially superior to the Jew's who were racially 'inferior' and an alien threat to the so-called perfect German community. So the German's exterminated them through concentration camps, death camps, medical experiments, mass grave shootings and forced labor. This time in Germany is something we call the Holocaust. Holocaust Auschwitz Birkenau Auschwitz Birkenau was the main death camp, upon arrival Jewish men, women and children would be killed in the Gas Chambers. They were told that they were having a shower to clean up, only they were gased and dead in about 20 minutes, their bodies were then taken to mass graves where they were burried in the open. Pearl Harbour Hawaii Changi P.O.W. Changi was a Japanese prisoner of war (POW) camp. It was used to imprison Malayan civilians and Allied soldiers. The treatment of the POW’s at Changi was cruel but the Japanese Imperial Army believed that those who surrendered, were guilty of dishonoring their country and family so they were to be treated accordingly. Many Australian soldiers were taken to Changi. The poor treatment didn't stop their mate-ship though, they were still high spirited having a good Aussie go. IN 1942 On the 21st of July 1942, the Japanese landed near Gona. For the next two months they attempted to drive the Australians and their allies back over the mountains towards Port Moresby. The Japanese’ aim was to take over Port Moresby; giving them the better opportunity to attack the north coast of Queensland. However this did not happen; the Japanese reached about 40 kilometers off Port Moresby but moved no further. In September the tables turned for the better as the Australians took a series of costly actions which pushed the Japanese right back the way they had come. By mid-November the Japanese were forced to abolish their plan to take over Port Moresby and retreat to Gona, Buna and Sanananda. Battle of Kokoda Soldiers put helmets over dead soldiers' graves Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels helping out Australians Walking the Kokoda Track The Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels, were the native Papua New Guinea people. They helped Australian soldiers carry supplies, and wounded casualties back to help. They earned great respect from Australians and will forever be in their hearts. End of World War II in Europe Key Events in World War II Soviet Union Germany began its advance into the Soviet Union (Russia) the harsh winter, untrained young soldiers and older soldiers affected Germany and it slowly began to deteriorate. Because of the state Germany was in Hitler experienced emotional disturbance, he began making erratic decisions and refused to listen to his military counsellors. After a while he decided Germany was no longer worthy of his ‘leadership’ and he and his wife killed themselves on the 30th of April 1945. With Hitler dead, Germany stopped fighting, ending the European side of World War II. End of World War II in the Asia Pacific The Japanese believed they should fight until they died rather than surrender. However, their resources were running low, causing starvation and limited supplies for soldiers. Because of this, Japan were losing many of their battles in the Pacific. IN 1945 On the 6th of August, 1945. America dropped the worlds first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, causing over 80,000 deaths. 3 days later they dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki, 6 days after, Japan finally surrendered. Ending World War II in the Asia pacific region Germany after the War After the war had ended, a conference was held in Potsdam, Germany, to make peace treaties. The countries that fought with Hitler lost territory and had to pay reparation to the allies. Germany was divided up into four parts. These parts were to be controlled by Great Britain, the United States, France and the Soviet Union (Russia). The Soviet Union began driving out the Germans from their home towns and taking over their cities. This was the largest ethnic cleansing in History, even compared to the Holocaust. Changed Relationships
A major political impact from World War II was Australia’s changed relationship with the United States and Britain. When Australia needed help, they called to Britain. However Britain could not help as they were having their own trouble with Germany. So the Australians asked the United States for help. The United States gave the help that was needed.
Australia and New Zealand realised how close Japan had come to invading Australia and they wanted protection from the United States in case further war broke out. Australia signed the treaty of ANZUS (Australia-New Zealand- United States) with New Zealand and the United States in 1951. The treaty meant that if either one of the countries were attacked in the Pacific, they would meet and to make defence plans. This treaty is significant to Australia because it shows the changed relationship between Britain and Australia. Population Change While all the men were away at war, the women obviously couldn’t have children by themselves. So when all the men came back and families were reunited, the population began to increase. This generation of people are what we now call the baby boomers.
In the United States, approximately 79 million babies were born in this time.
More than four million Australians were born between 1946-1961. Impact on Jews After the War many Jews that were not killed, migrated all over the world to safety.
• From 1933 to 1939, Australia gained between 7,000-8,000 Jewish refugees from Nazism, many from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. The end of World War II was much different to the end of World War I. The destruction was so great that most of Europe and Asia was in ruins. In the war, civilians were the victims just as much as the military forces.
The allies tried their hardest to feed and house the refugees and reunite families that had been forcibly torn apart, but the size of the task and the obstacles were huge.
In Germany, it has been estimated that 70% of housing was ruined and in the Soviet Union,1,700 towns and 70,000 villages were also in ruins.
Countries such as Canada, the United States and Australia were barely touched by physical destruction as the war was mainly fought in Europe and Asia. Long term effects of World War II Many Children suffered the effects of trauma. Child psychoanalysis was founded during the Second World War from the work of Anna Freud, daughter of Sigmund Freud. She made a centre for young war victims called the Hampstead War Nursery. Children separated from their parents were given foster care there.
After the war this kind of work continued at the Bulldogs Bank Home, an orphanage that was run by Freud’s colleagues, this orphanage took care of children who had survived the brutal concentration camps.
The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused great physical damage to lives from the radiation poisoning. Many babies were born with birth defects and many people died from terminal illness's caused by the harmful particles.
Post traumatic stress disorder impacted a huge amount of people involved in the war. There are three major groups of symptoms:
•Arousal symptoms: which include outbursts in anger, sleep disturbance and difficulty concentrating.
• Re-experiencing symptoms: They include flashbacks, nightmares and emotional distress when reminded of the trauma
•Avoidance symptoms: They include trying to avoid thinking about the trauma, low interest in other activities, staying distant from others and emotional numbing. World War II was a war like no other. Millions of people were killed and injured physically and psychologically. Over many years people have wondered when the next World War will arise, hopefully we have learnt from the past and this time will never come. References
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Rosenberg, M. (2013). Baby boom: The population baby boom of 1946-1964 in the United States.
Retrieved from http://geography.about.com/od/populationgeography/a/babyboom.htm
Rutland, S. D. (2006). Jewish immigration after the second world war: The transformation of a community. University of Sydney. Retrieved from http://www.ijs.org.au/Jewish-Immigration-after-the-Second-World-War/default.aspx
Science Museum. (n.d.). Brought to life: War's long-term effects. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/themes/war/effects.aspx
The Sunday Times. (2012). Orderly and humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the second world war by RM Douglas. Retrieved from http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/culture/books/non_fiction/article1093531.ece
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (2012). Holocaust encyclopedia: World war II in the pacific. Retrieved from http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005155 References:
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