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PSY 1129 Chapter 10 Lecture

Chapter 10: Leadership

Neetu Dheri

on 19 November 2018

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Transcript of PSY 1129 Chapter 10 Lecture

Spring 2018

Professor: S.N. Dheri
George Brown College

PSY 1129: Organizational Behaviour
Chapter 10: Leadership
Approaches to Leadership
Transactional vs
Transformational Leadership
How do you define Leadership?
Direct others
Manage resources; put customers first
Are conscientious; plan, organize, direct and control
Understand and use authority and responsibility
Managers implement the vision and strategic plans created by Leaders.

Inspire and motivate others
Manage people; put people first
Are charismatic; get employees to “rally” around a common goal
Understand and use power/influence
Create visions and strategic plans.
Leading versus Managing
"What type of person makes a good leader?"

Trait theories focus on leaders’ traits. There are specific "traits" that one must have in order to be a good leader.
leader trait
is a physical trait or personality characteristic that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers.
Leadership traits can be developed through experience and learning.
1. Trait Approaches
2. Behavioural Approaches
Behavioural Approaches focus on
how leaders behave
For example:
Dictate what needs to be done and expect cooperation
... OR
Involve teams in decision-making to encourage acceptance and support?
Patterns of behaviour (called leadership styles) were identified that enable leaders to effectively influence others.
2. Behavioural Approaches – cont’d
3. Contingency Approaches – cont’d
"How does the situation influence good leadership?"
Three Contingency Approaches of leadership that
notion of “one best” leadership style:
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory
House’s Path-Goal Theory
3. a) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
3. a) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory – cont’d
Situational Control refers to the
amount of control & influence the leader has in his or her immediate work environment
. It ranges from low to high.

HIGH Situational Control leader’s decisions will produce predictable results because the leader is able to influence the work outcomes.

LOW Situational Control leader’s decisions may not influence work outcomes because the leader has very little influence.
3. a) Fiedler’s Contingency Theory – cont’d
Three dimensions of situational control that vary independently and thus create eight combinations of situational control:
Leader-Member Relations
Reflect the extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty, and trust of the work group.

Task Structure
Is concerned with the amount of structure contained within tasks performed by the work group (routine vs. non-routine).

Position Power
Refers to the degree to which the leader has formal power to reward, punish, or otherwise obtain compliance from employees.
Leader's performance depends on:
Degree to which situation gives leader control and influence
(likelihood that leader can accomplish the job)
Leader's basic motivation: task-motivated or relationship-motivated
(whether leader's self-esteem depends on accomplishing the task or on having relationships with others)
Assumes that leaders have one dominant leadership style that is resistant to change (easier to change the leader than to change the leader's style).
Robert House’s model describes how leadership effectiveness is influenced by the interaction between:
Leader Behaviours and
Contingency Factors
Contingency factors
= internal (
employee characteristics
) and external
(environmental factors
) situational variables that influence the appropriateness of a leadership style.
One style may be more effective than another,
depending on the situation
3. b) House’s Path-Goal Theory
A Reformulated Theory
The revised theory is presented in Figure 10.3.
There are some key changes in the new theory:

House now believes that leadership is more complex and involves a greater variety of leader behaviour. He thus identifies eight categories of leadership styles or behaviours (see Table 10.5).

Focuses on the
interpersonal transactions

between managers and employees (or on maintaining quality interactions).
Leaders use contingent rewards to motivate employees (
use of extrinsic motivation
Leaders exert corrective action only when subordinates fail to obtain performance goals.
"Transactional leaders monitor people so that they do the expected, according to plan, in order to maintain the status-quo."

"Managerial leadership that works to maintain status-quo."
4. Transactional Leadership
Leadership with a vision that


the organization through role-modeling and inspiring behaviours, and encourages the pursuit toward achieving organizational goals.
Can produce significant organizational change because this type of leadership
fosters higher intrinsic motivation
trust, commitment and loyalty
"Transformational leaders are visionaries who challenge people to do exceptional things, above and beyond what is simply expected of them."

"Leadership that influences and inspires workforces to go beyond simple self-interests."
4. Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders transform followers by creating changes in their goals, values, needs, beliefs, and aspirations.

They accomplish this transformation by appealing to followers’ self-concepts—namely their values and personal identity.

Figure 10.5 presents a model of how leaders accomplish this transformation process.
4. Transformational Leadership – cont’d
Figure 10.5 cont’d
The four sets of leader behaviours have certain effects on followers and work groups (such as increased intrinsic motivation, increased trust and self-esteem, etc.).

These effects on followers and work groups ultimately lead to positive (and desirable) organizational outcomes like stronger commitment to the leader, the vision and the organization, increased performance, etc.
4. Transformational Leadership – cont’d
Inspirational Motivation
– establishing an attractive vision for the future that followers are inspired to commit to.

Idealized Influence (charisma)
– sacrificing for the good of the group, being a role model, displaying high ethical standards ...
MODEL the behaviour you want in others.

Individualized Consideration
– providing support, encouragement, empowerment and coaching.

Intellectual Stimulation
– encouraging employees to question the status quo and to seek innovative and creative solutions to organizational problems.
4. Transformational Leadership – cont’d
Leadership Defined
Leadership is
“a process that uses social influence to enable and seek the participation of subordinates in an effort to reach common organizational goals”.

Four Key Components:
1. Leadership is a

2. Leadership involves
social influence
3. Leadership occurs at
multiple levels
in the organization.
4. Leadership focuses on
goal accomplishment

1. Trait Approaches – cont’d
Ohio State Studies:
TWO Critical Dimensions of Leader Behaviour...
(a concern for the group):
Leader with focused concern for group's needs; creates mutual respect and trust with followers.

Initiating Structure
Leader with this focus organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize input.

University of Michigan Studies'
two leadership styles
overlap Ohio State Studies.
2. Behavioural Approaches – cont’d
Peter Drucker recommended nine
managers can focus on to improve leadership effectiveness.
First two: provide the knowledge leaders need.
Next four practices: help leaders convert knowledge into effective action.
Last two: ensure that whole organization feels responsible and accountable.
Drucker refers to the last recommendation, LISTENING, is a
managerial rule
2. Behavioural Approaches – cont’d
3. b) House’s Path-Goal Theory – cont’d
3. b) House’s Path-Goal Theory – cont’d
3. b) House’s Path-Goal Theory – cont’d
Key Revisions to Path-Goal Theory - cont'd:
Idea of
Shared Leadership

Path–Goal Theory is based on the premise that an employee does not have to be a supervisor or manager to engage in leader behaviour; leadership should be shared among all employees within an organization (without formally being assigned).
To foster
intrinsic motivation through empowerment
3. b) House’s Path-Goal Theory – cont’d
Shared leadership is a simultaneous, ongoing and mutually influential process in which people throughout an organization share responsibility for leadership.
Shared leadership is most likely needed when people work in teams on complex projects and is based on the following assumptions about people:
There is a need to share information and collaborate to get things done at work.
They must adopt a horizontal process of influence and leadership.
They have a shared responsibility for leading.
Bass & Avolio propose that:
Leadership behaviour varies along a continuum from
(a general failure to take responsibility for leading)
to transactional
to transformational
Examples of laissez-faire leadership:
Avoiding conflict, surfing internet during work, failing to assist employees in setting performance goals, failing to give performance feedback, etc.
*Firms should identify managers with this leadership style and train them to become more transactional or transformational leaders.
4. Laissez-Fair to Transformational
4. Transformational Leadership – cont’d
The best leaders are not just charismatic; they are both transactional and transformational.
The approach influences both group dynamics and group-level outcomes.
Employees at any level in an organization can be trained to be more transactional and transformational.
Transformational leaders can be ethical or unethical
Ethical charismatic leaders enable employees to enhance their self-concepts.
Unethical charismatic leaders select or produce obedient, dependent, and compliant followers.
Servant Leadership
Focuses on increased
service to others
(employees, customers, community) rather than to oneself.
Characteristics such as
listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, and building community (Table 10.7 page 347).
Followers become
wiser, healthier, more autonomous—and more likely to become servant-leaders themselves.
Servant leadership is not a quick-fix approach to leadership... Rather, it is a long-term, transformational approach to life and work.
CEOs that demonstrate servant leader characteristics positively impact firm's bottom line!
5. Servant Leadership
What kind of leader will you be?
The following is the list of key
leader traits – to be used as a guideline.
"What does a good leader do?"
Course Outcomes
Chapter 10: Leadership
Chapter 11: Organizational Culture
Participation Exercises
Team Project Check-In Contribution Summaries
4. Apply concepts of leadership styles and theories that are applicable to different situations in the work environment.

Describe the various styles of leadership
Explain why leadership is important and what traits make an effective leader
Describe the Path Goal theory of leadership
Discuss what is meant by Transformational Leadership
What determines situational control?
Leadership ... is a very complex concept.
No "right" or "wrong" theories of leadership... just different perspectives
You could certainly develop or mature into a good leader; doesn't have to be something that you are born with
Many, many leadership theories available
Most common (oldest) Leadership Theories:
Trait Theories
Behavioural Theories
Are Leaders BORN or MADE?
What makes a GREAT Leader?
However, does having these traits make you an
No universal list of traits that predict effective leadership in
effective leaders
are different from the behaviours of ineffective leaders...
People-Oriented Leader
Task-Oriented Leaders
Example Video:
Focus on completing the task at hand
Like to be in control of the entire process
Search out the best ways and what's needed to get the work done (resources, "to-dos", deadlines)
Assign the work (decide who will do what and how the resources will be used)
Set deadlines
Pros? Cons?
Focus their attention on the individuals who work for them, not on the tasks that they must see complete; ask the team, "who wants to do what?", "how should the resources be spent?"
By focusing on their workforce, these leaders can make their workers feel valued and empower them to create change in the business world
Pros? Cons?
Related Articles:
Trait and Behavioural Theories help us understand Leadership...
However, an important element is missing:
the environment in which the leader exists.
Contingency Theories account for the differences in the situation...
Match the leader style to the characteristics of the work situation!
Leaders help clarify the "path" to employees' goals by facilitating, supporting and directing their behaviour appropriately.
How effective leader is (if he/she accomplishes these things), will depend on the characteristics of the employees and the environmental factors.
Key Takeaways:
Leaders must learn to influence the situation in order to create a ‘match’ between their leadership style and the amount of control within the situation at hand.
Leaders are advised to alter their task & relationship orientation to the situation.
Source: www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQ5vhPowj_0
Source: www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddt_IGMMOrI
Transactional Leaders
Transformational Leaders
Related Articles:
The "Ethical, Selfless Leader"
type of person
makes a good leader?"
[Leadership based on physical traits or personality characteristics - 20th Century]
"What does a good leader
[Leadership based on behaviours - 1050s-60s]
Does Managing = Leading?
"How does
the situation
influence good leadership?"
[There's no one best style of leadership; it's contingent upon other factors - 1960s-70s]
External Contingency Factors
Internal Contingency Factors
Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
Source: http://www.slideshare.net/AliNoman3/transactional-33231370
aka Managerial Leadership ... displays "manager traits"

Focuses on satisfying Maslow's basic needs (lower-level needs)

Demonstrates "task-oriented" behaviours

Link effort to reward
Transactional Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Inspires followers to transform

Motivates by focusing on Maslow's higher-order needs

Demonstrates "people-oriented" behaviours

Have integrity and high EI
*Most popular approach to study leadership today - began in 1980s.
Refer to Table 10.2 page 327
"Participative Leadership"
"Empowering Leadership"
In-class exercise #2:

Experimental Exercise
Page 357 in textbook

In-class Exercise #1
Who are they?
Compare and contrast backgrounds, training, income, gender, religion, etc.

Identify and categorize leadership style and power preference.
I.e. Are they focused on tasks or on people-or on both equally?
Consider your assigned pair of leaders...
Full transcript