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Transcript of Biosensor
Diagnostic should be;
Able to do multiple detections in low concentration.
BIOMARKERS IN CANCER
BIOSENSORS in CANCER
Future of biosensors;
No need for sample preparation
User-friendly handling system
Chemical analysis and signal acquisition capabilities.
-What is cancer? . Retrieved from American Cancer Society: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer
-Dell'Atti, Daniela. "Detection of linically Relevant Point Mutations by a Novel Piezoelectric Biosensor." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 21 (2006): 1876-879. Web.
-Gruhl, Friederike J., and Kerstin Länge. "Surface Modiﬁcation of an Acoustic Biosensor Allowing the Detection of Low Concentrations of Cancer Markers." Analytical Biochemistry 420 (2012): 188-90. Web.
-Paiva Gouvêa, Cibele Marli Cação. "Biosensors for Health Applications." INTECHOPEN. 19 July 2011. Web. <http://www.intechopen.com/books/biosensors-for-health-environment-and-biosecurity/biosensors-for-health-applications>.
-Bohunicky, Brian, and Shaker A. Mousa. "Biosensors: The New Wave in Cancer Diagnosis." Nanotechnology, Science and Applications 4 (2011): 1-10. Web.
-Li, Jianping, Shuhuai Li, and Catherine F. Yang. "Electrochemical Biosensors for Cancer Biomarker Detection." Electroanalysis 24.12 (2012): 2213-229. Web.
Zhang, Yuqian, Dongliang Yang, Lixing Weng, and Lianhui Wang. "Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors." International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2013). Web. 20 May 2014.
Biosensor and Nanotechnology
Early diagnosis, improved survival rate
Better access and detection of cancer markers
Increased surface to volume ratio
More powerful and specific signal enhancements, reduced cost, and high throughput detection.
Uncontrolled cell proliferation
What is biosensors?
A chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived recognition is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter.
monitor blood glucose level in diabetics,
diagnose and monitor cancer
In Environmental use;
detection of harmful bacteria/pesticides
in air water or food.
Bioterrorism devices that can detect elements of cehmical and biological warfare
In Cancer Application;
tumor biomarker (early diagnostic)
detect of tumor
measures treatment effects
Transducers used for detection of cancer biomarkers
most commonly used
easy to use
low detection limit
to prepare electrochemical biosensors:
types of signals measured
electrochemical luminescence (ECL)
include fluorescence, interferometry and spectroscopy of optical waveguides
surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
CANCER DETECTION RESEARCH BY BIOSENSORS IN STANFORD UNIVERSITY
SPR - label-free
based on changes in
Cancer biomarker detection
a glass chip is coated with a chromium or titanium film and a gold film
molecules are immobilized on gold surface, and unlabeled analyte is added.
The refractive index changes at the interface of the gold sensor chip when analyte interact with immobilized molecules
with the angle changes of a reflected laser beam, the amount of surface-bound biomolecule are detected.
Mass-based Biosensors for Cancer Detection
Work by measuring the change in frequency which occurs when the antigen binds to the antibody receptor.
Can detect specific cancer biomarker
Point mutations of tumor suppressor gene i.e. p53
-Less common for cancer detection
As a novel and promising technology, Aptamer-based Biosensors are trend now.
Aptamer: single-stranded DNA or RNA (ssDNA or ssRNA) molecules that can bind to pre-selected targets including proteins and peptides with high affinity and specificity.
Procedure of SELEX (
Gruhl et al. 2011; antibodies immobilized via biotinylated protein A on Surface Acoutic Wave (SAW) biosensor.
Purpose of the study is detecting HER-2 and TIMP-2 (breast cancer markers) even in low concentration
Piezoelectric sensor is able to detect antigen in picogram range.
ECL-based SWCNT immunosensors after addition of PSA and the Ru(bpy)3^2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) -silica-Ab2 nanoparticles.
In cancer research and medicine, biomarkers used in three primary ways;
1. To help diagnose conditions, as in the case of identifying early stage cancers
2.To forecast how aggressive a condition is,as in
the case of determining a patient's ability to fare in
the absence of treatment
3.To predict how well a patient will respond to treatment
BIOMARKERS IN CANCER
Cancer Antigen 125
Single-walled carbon nanotubes