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Biosensor

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Eda Güngörürler

on 23 May 2014

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Transcript of Biosensor

Başak Erpolat
Beste Baykut
Eda Güngörürler
Narod Kebabcı
Tuğçe İlhan

Conclusion
Diagnostic should be;
Simple
Sensitive
Able to do multiple detections in low concentration.

INTRODUCTION
BIOMARKERS IN CANCER
BIOSENSORS in CANCER
Future of biosensors;
No need for sample preparation
User-friendly handling system
Chemical analysis and signal acquisition capabilities.
REFERENCES
-What is cancer? . Retrieved from American Cancer Society: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer

-Dell'Atti, Daniela. "Detection of linically Relevant Point Mutations by a Novel Piezoelectric Biosensor." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 21 (2006): 1876-879. Web.

-Gruhl, Friederike J., and Kerstin Länge. "Surface Modification of an Acoustic Biosensor Allowing the Detection of Low Concentrations of Cancer Markers." Analytical Biochemistry 420 (2012): 188-90. Web.

-Paiva Gouvêa, Cibele Marli Cação. "Biosensors for Health Applications." INTECHOPEN. 19 July 2011. Web. <http://www.intechopen.com/books/biosensors-for-health-environment-and-biosecurity/biosensors-for-health-applications>.

-Bohunicky, Brian, and Shaker A. Mousa. "Biosensors: The New Wave in Cancer Diagnosis." Nanotechnology, Science and Applications 4 (2011): 1-10. Web.

-Li, Jianping, Shuhuai Li, and Catherine F. Yang. "Electrochemical Biosensors for Cancer Biomarker Detection." Electroanalysis 24.12 (2012): 2213-229. Web.

Zhang, Yuqian, Dongliang Yang, Lixing Weng, and Lianhui Wang. "Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors." International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2013). Web. 20 May 2014.
Electrochemical Biosensors
Biosensor and Nanotechnology
Early diagnosis, improved survival rate
Better access and detection of cancer markers
Increased surface to volume ratio
More powerful and specific signal enhancements, reduced cost, and high throughput detection.
Uncontrolled cell proliferation
Immortal cells
DNA damage
Tumor
What is biosensors?
A chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived recognition is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter.
History...
In medicine;
monitor blood glucose level in diabetics,
pathogens
diagnose and monitor cancer
In Environmental use;
detection of harmful bacteria/pesticides
in air water or food.
Military intereset;
Bioterrorism devices that can detect elements of cehmical and biological warfare
In Cancer Application;
tumor biomarker (early diagnostic)
detect of tumor
measures treatment effects

Transducers used for detection of cancer biomarkers
Electrochemical
Optical
Mass-based
Calorimetric
Optical Biosensors
most commonly used
portable
easy to use
cost effective
simple
high sensitivity
low detection limit
to prepare electrochemical biosensors:
immobilization
sensitivity
types of signals measured
:
conductivity
amperometric
potentiometric
electrochemical luminescence (ECL)
light-based sensors
include fluorescence, interferometry and spectroscopy of optical waveguides
surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
CANCER DETECTION RESEARCH BY BIOSENSORS IN STANFORD UNIVERSITY

SPR - label-free
optical technique

based on changes in
refractive index
Cancer biomarker detection
a glass chip is coated with a chromium or titanium film and a gold film
molecules are immobilized on gold surface, and unlabeled analyte is added.
The refractive index changes at the interface of the gold sensor chip when analyte interact with immobilized molecules
with the angle changes of a reflected laser beam, the amount of surface-bound biomolecule are detected.
Mass-based Biosensors for Cancer Detection
Piezoelectric Biosensor
Work by measuring the change in frequency which occurs when the antigen binds to the antibody receptor.
Can detect specific cancer biomarker
or
Point mutations of tumor suppressor gene i.e. p53
Acoustic Biosensors
Calorimetric Biosensors
-Less common for cancer detection
As a novel and promising technology, Aptamer-based Biosensors are trend now.
Aptamer: single-stranded DNA or RNA (ssDNA or ssRNA) molecules that can bind to pre-selected targets including proteins and peptides with high affinity and specificity.

Procedure of SELEX (
S
ystematic
E
volution of
L
igands with
EX
ponential Enrichment)
Gruhl et al. 2011; antibodies immobilized via biotinylated protein A on Surface Acoutic Wave (SAW) biosensor.

Purpose of the study is detecting HER-2 and TIMP-2 (breast cancer markers) even in low concentration
www.tms.org/pubs/Journals/JOM/0010/Kumar/fig4.gif
Piezoelectric sensor is able to detect antigen in picogram range.
ECL-based SWCNT immunosensors after addition of PSA and the Ru(bpy)3^2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) -silica-Ab2 nanoparticles.
In cancer research and medicine, biomarkers used in three primary ways;
1. To help diagnose conditions, as in the case of identifying early stage cancers

2.To forecast how aggressive a condition is,as in
the case of determining a patient's ability to fare in
the absence of treatment

3.To predict how well a patient will respond to treatment
BIOMARKERS IN CANCER
Cancer Biomarkers;
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Cancer Antigen 125
CA 15-3
Cancer-testis Antigens
RCASI (EBAG-9)
Single-walled carbon nanotubes
Full transcript