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Introduction to Subnetting

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sterling hiebert

on 19 April 2017

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Transcript of Introduction to Subnetting

The Basics
What is an IP Address?
Subnetting in practice
you only have one IP network to work with, but you need to be able to separate Electrical Engineering, and Information Technology groups into isolated networks
Subnet Mask
the Subnet Mask separates the network portion of the an IP address and the Host portion. 1 denotes Network bits and 0 Denotes Host bits

Subnet Mask Cont...
We can't use the first or last address on a network because the first is the address of the network itself, and the last is a broadcast address.
What is Subnetting?
Subnetting is the act of reducing the size of a single IP Network by splitting it into smaller subnetworks.
What are IP addresses made of?
Each octet contains a numerical representation of 8 Binary Bits. Can be numbered 0-255
Introduction to Subnetting
Sterling Hiebert
A Unique String of values that uniquely identify a Device on a network.
Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPV4) is the most widely used
IPV4 is 32 bits in length, IPV6 is 128 Bits in length
Represented by four octets delimited by periods
Example: 135.12.4.241
Subnetting, allows for the creation of isolated networks.
Increases security by limiting the number of devices allowed on a network.
Reduces the need for additional routers
00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000
0 represents an "off switch" while 1 represents an "on switch".
each position in an octet moving right to left represents 2 to the raised power.
2^7 2^6 2^5 2^4 2^3 2^2 2^1 2^0
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Using the "on/off switch"

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0=
128 62 32 16 8 4 2 1
00000000.00000000.000000.
10000010
calculate the last octet
128+0+0+0+0+0+2+0=130
IP Address=0.0.0.130
an IP Network is a collection of devices which communicate using IP.
your network address is 192.168.32.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0
both Networks must be able to Allow 113 devices
Subnets are identified by a subnet mask
example: 255.255.255.0
A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 could be written in Binary as 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
or in the context of a network/host boundary as nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.hhhhhhhh
How do we subnet?
by "stealing a bit" we can increase the number of networks, but reduce the number of hosts per network
Old Subnet Mask
nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.
hhhhhhhh
11111111.11111111.11111111.
00000000

New Subnet Mask
nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.
nhhhhhhh
11111111.11111111.11111111.
1000000
When calculating number of possible hosts, it's (number of Host addresses)-2
Anding
Network addresses are found by placing the subnet mask, and IP address parrallel to eachother and calculating corresponding binary ones within a working octet.
1
0000010
1
0000000
10000000
IP address
Subnet Mask
Network Address
displayed plain text:
130
128
128
Old-New
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0-255.255.255.128
creates 2 networks instead of 1
each network can support 126 devices
=(256/2)-2
first network begins at 192.168.32.0
Second Begins at 192.168.32.128
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh
nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn
>2 4 8 16 32 64...
...64 32 16 8 4 2<
Full transcript