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Transcript of Roman Art
Influences The art of the Roman Empire was heavily influenced by the Etruscans, Rome predecessors on the Italian mainland, and by the Hellenic influences of the Greeks. The Romans not only directly imitated and copied Greek artistic ideas, Greek artists were brought to Rome and relied upon to design and repair monumental buildings. The Greek influence was very predominant in Roman painting and sculpture. Painting Roman painting served mostly a decorative function. It was influenced by the architecture of the time. Roman buildings tended to have a small number of doors and windows. This left large amounts of wall space. Painting techniques were developed to enhance the walls and to make the living space a more comfortable dwelling. Romans refined the technique of painting mosaics and murals and emphasized natural themes such as landscapes and narrative themes drawn from literature and mythology. The primary colors used in Roman painting were deep red, yellow, green, violet and black. The best preserved examples of Roman wall painting are Herculaneum and Pompeii. Roman art also made important strides in sculpture, which can be divided into statues and relief sculptures. The Greek influence is strongly felt in Roman statues, and, in fact, many Roman statues and sculptures are copies or interpretations of Greek sculptures. However, many Roman sculptures are characterized by their realism. Greek statues tend to idealize the human form. Roman sculptors, on the other hand, presented realistic representations of their subjects with all their flaws.
Relief sculptures were works of art carved on long pieces of stone or on the side of buildings. They were created both as decoration and as a tool to record and celebrate an important event. The size of the relief was dependent on the location and purpose for which it was intended. The relief sculpture was either a collection of figures used to represent a sequence of events, or it was intended to represent one significant event or occurrence. The wall was used as a space in which figures appear and disappear. The sculpture changed with the perspective of the viewer. Portrait and Relief Sculptures Origin and Influences Many of the greatest Roman works of art reflected the simple grandeur of Classical and Hellenistic Greek art. This is due, in part, to the fact that many Roman artists were of Greek origin or from Greek colonies. Additionally numerous Roman Emperors, inspired by Greek culture and art, commissioned sculptures of themselves in the likeness of Greek heroes and Gods depicting them as the rulers of an all powerful and expansive empire. Great buildings where constructed, such as the Pula Arena, reminiscent of the wonders of ancient Greece. This love for Greek language, culture, religion, and art affected the rise of the empire and the forming of the Roman identity. Painting Roman painting was one of the most versatile mediums of Roman art. The differing cultural and regional influences within the empire produced a vast range of differing painting techniques and styles. Early Etruscan art was somewhat basic as it had more of an ancestral feel to it with simple and idealized imagery. In the later, more developed, Roman Art we see a wide range of styles and fused elements from the many conquered cultures within the empire. Again Greek artistic and cultural art had a prominent influence in Roman painting.
Mixing Britannic art with the Greco-Roman style was one of the many types of art types that would be seen throughout the provinces. Spanish, Carthaginian, Arabic, Egyptian art forms were fused and adapted into art in those given areas. As the empire started to fall into decline and barbarian influence grew stronger more Germanic styles were seen in art. As well the developing Christian faith had great influence on art showing up largely around 300 AD. The impact of Christianity changed the view of art to not be about the human or this lifetime, but for the Heavens and afterlife, changing the old Roman idea of human grandeur and bearing resemblance to Gods.
The Roman used paintings largely as decorations and backdrops, they were used to decorate tombs and palaces, as well paintings the walls of their rooms with images of heroes or of the historical culture of the province. There was also portable paintings done on pieces of wood placed together to make scenery. Architecture and statues like in the Greek period were painted over to make the work seem all the more impressive and grand. The greatest influence on Roman sculpture was Greek works and many statues were replicas from Classical era sculptures. Many Greek sculptures that exist today are actually Roman replicas of the original. The Romans at first adopted the style of these sculptures originally but as time passed they added more making their own style giving more emphasis to the individual making them seem stronger and glorifying them. Sculpture was either done in bronze or marble as were the classical molds which were greatly replicated throughout the empire. Most Roman sculptures were created to serve and decorate the needs of the patron and not just because the artist felt to express their work. Roman art differed from Greek in that it wanted depict a more realistic portrayal of people, where as the Greek was people in their ideal form. Roman works showed people being old, or homely but being real, aging and being human. Scuplture Architecture The architecture of the Roman Empire is one of longest last pieces of its presence across the world, many Roman structures still stand today mostly in fragments and ruins, but still leave behind the legacy of the great empire. The style of the architecture takes a lot off of Greek architecture and yet adds much more to them, Roman architecture made utilization of their technology and innovations. The Romans developed a type of cement which allowed them to do much more build larger, taller buildings, and entirely new structures. Roman roads, aqueducts, and temples still strewn the reaches of the empire, and the vast structures such as Hadrian s Wall, the Coliseum and Pantheon still remain today. Roman architecture influences our modern architecture today using the innovations made by the Romans to build the government buildings and monuments that take credit to this origin. During the Renaissance and Neo-classical era’s the works of Rome were brought back and found in many large Cathedrals and imperial palaces. Characteristics of Roman Art Roman Artists
Boethos of Chalkedon- Sculptor
Demetrios of Alexandria- Painter
How The Ancient Roman Art Influence the Modern World Roman art is generally defined as the art of Roman civilization. Many characteristics of Roman art have their origins in the art of the Etruscans, the Romans' predecessors as the dominant culture of Italy. As Roman domination spread, Roman art absorbed this Etruscan style and the Etruscan influence included temple architecture, sculpture, portraiture and wall painting. Rome was also deeply influenced by the art of the Hellenistic world.
Compared with Greek architecture, Roman was more secular and ulitarian and showed an interest in grandeur and scale for example the Colosseum and public baths in Rome.
The Rome also developed the use of the arch, the vault, and the dome, and discovered concrete, which all allowed for a much grander architecture, its culmination being found in religious buildings such as the Pantheon in Rome and the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Both these buildings (which still stand today) had important influence far beyond the Roman period. The triumphal arch was another Roman invention that was revived in the Renaissance and stands as an important example of Roman civic and monumental architecture. Relief sculpture was also used for funerary art. The Romans developed the use of mosaic decoration from the Greek example and with wall painting it became an important aspect of patrician domestic decoration, the best surviving examples being from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Wall painting showed an interest in landscape and the illustration of scenes from myth and literature. The decorative arts included fine silver and glassware, such as the Portland Vase, and jewellery of amber, precious gem; and gold.
Wherever the Roman Empire extended, it took its arts and architecture, and its mosaic, theatres, temples and statuary may be found from Hadrian's Wall in the north of England to Leptis Magna in North Africa, and from Constantinople in the east to Emerita Augusta in Spain in the west. Though the barbarian tribes who finally overran the empire brought their own arts and traditions they held the Roman culture in awe, adopting and adapting their art as well as their laws and religion, by then Christianity, as they saw fit. However it was the 15th century Italian Renaissance that saw the greatest revival of Roman art, and its influence and heritage survives in all branches of the arts today. Roman Art Examples •Pont du Gard Aqueduct, near Nimes, France, c. 20-10 BCE. Although it is no longer a functioning aqueduct bridge, it is close to two thousand years old and still standing is a testament to the skills of its builders (although of course it has had renovations over time).
•Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), 70-82 CE. The Colosseum recalls the gladiatorial contests, the naval displays, and the martyrdom of Christians which took place within its walls before it became a medieval fortress or was plundered to provide building materials for Renaissance palaces and churches
•Aqueduct of Segovia (the aqueduct bridge) is aRoman aqueduct and one of the most significant and best-preserved ancientmonuments left on the Iberian Peninsula. It is located in Spain and is the foremost symbol of Segovia, as evidenced by its presence on the city's coat of arms.
•Augustus of Primaporta, early 1st century CE after a bronze of the 1st century BCE, marble. The 2.04m high marble statue of Augustus. The Augustus of Primaporta is one of the ways that the ancients used art for propagandistic purposes. Overall, this statue is not simply a portrait of the emperor, it expresses Augustus’ connection to the past, his role as a military victor, his connection to the gods, and his role as the bringer of the Roman Peace.
•Arch of Constantine, 313 CE A triumphal arch inRome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentiusat the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312.
•Temple of Portunus, 75 BCEIt is one of the temple of Rome's Forum Boarium, also the main temple dedicated to the God Portunus in Rome. The street that once connected the Forum Boarium with the bridge and passed in front of this temple, was called VicusLucceius (today Via di Ponte Rotto). The temple was what modern specialists call a pseudoperipteros temple with sixIonic columns in front. This was a common type of temple in the Latin part of the Roman world, although examples are known from the east as well (e.g., theTemple of the Muses in Baalbek).
•Arch of Titus vault shows Titus being carried to heaven on the back of an eagle representing his apostheosis (the highest point of the glory, power and importance). The arch was constructed of Pentelic marble on a travertine foundation. It was said to have been built in order to commemorate the capturing of Jerusalem over the Jewish Zealots. Roman Art