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The Space Race
Transcript of The Space Race
Show of technological advances
Significant innovation throughout 1960s Legacy More emphasis on education in American schools (mathematics, physical science)
New technology (ex: in food preparation, transportation)
Environmental movement- people could see Earth from space for first time
Apollo 8- Earth Day Sources "Explorer 1 First U.S. Satellite- NASA JPL" Explorer 1 First U.S. Satellite. NASAJet Propulsion Laboratory. 1 Jan. 2003. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.
Kremer, Kenn. "Yuri Gagarin and Vostok 1 Photo Album – 50th Anniversary of Human Spaceflight." Universe Today RSS. N.p., 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.
Ryba, Jeanne. "Project Mercury." (2007): n.pag. NASA. Web. 8 Apr 2013. <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mercury/missions/program-toc.html>.
"Space and Astronomy~Decade by Decade ." Scribd. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2013.
Stern, David. "Explorers 1 and 3." NASA, 25 Nov. 2001. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.
"The Decision to Go to the Moon:President John F. Kennedy's May 25, 1961 Speech before Congress." May 25, 1961 Speech before Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.
"Vanguard Project." - U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. U.S. Navy, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.
Zak, Anatoly. "Sputnik." Sputnik. Russian Space Web, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. Launching of Sputnik I by the Soviet Union began the "space war" with the United States. The first artifial satellite that was put in to the Earth's orbit. 1957 1960 Explorer 1 was the first American satellite put into earth's orbit. The first of the 90 Explorer spacecraft series.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was formed by the United States. Discoverer 14, launched by the United States, was the first satellite put into space by coming of a moving spacecraft in orbit and then reattaching in mid-air. 1958 Yuri Gagarin was the first man in space on board the Vostok 1 space craft.
Alan Shepard was the first American in space on board of Freedom 7. 1961 Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman in space sent by the Soviets on the Vostok 6 spacecraft. She was choosen out of 400 other applicants. 1963 Alexey Leonov was the first man out in actual space. He was outside the spacecraft for 12 minutes and 9 seconds. Leonov's space suit became infalted when he was trying to get back into the spacecraft. He was able to let some air out and barely made it back.
Ed White was the first American to complete a spacewalk. He was sent on the mission Gemini 4. White was in space for 23 mintues. 1965 Missions Luna 9, 10 were launched by the Russians
Completed the first soft lunar landing and the first satellite to orbit the moon respectively Soyuz I was launched. It resulted in one death and was the first fatal space flight. Soviet Union First human in space: Yuri Gagarin (April 12, 1961)
Vostok 1 (Automatic)
Manual control: Gherman Titov (Aug 6, 1961)
Voskhod 1 (1964): First multi-person spacecraft
Alexey Leonov (first man "in" space, Mar 18, 1965) United States Project Mercury
First American in space: Alan Shepard (May 5, 1961)
First American to orbit Earth: John Glenn (Feb 20, 1962)
Friendship 7 http://www.fastcompany.com/pics/tech-took-yuri-gagarin-space http://www.spacefacts.de/graph/drawing/large/english/vostok-1_launch.htm Humans in Space: Soviet Union http://www.thirdageireland.ie/news/283/friday-inspirational-older-persona-oldest-person-in-space-john-glenn.html http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1203.html Humans in Space: United States http://www.space.com/14608-john-glenn-friendship-7-50th-anniversary-nasa-events.html http://www.octopusoverlords.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=17221 Sputnik I Sputnik II Launched in 1957
Weighed over 1,000 pounds
Carried Laika, the first live animal sent into space
Rushed development to race Americans
Caused Americans to step up efforts Explorer I First successful US satellite launch
Launched in 1958, about four months after Sputnik I
Detected first evidence of previously theorized Van Allen radiation belts (bands of highly charged particles held in place by the earth's magnetic field)
Propelled by the Jupiter-C rocket developed by Dr. Von Braun
Orbited Earth every 115 minutes
Orbited for about 12 years The Rest of the Explorer Program Explorer II failed to launch in 1958
Explorer III was able to transmit much more data than Explorer I
It clarified data confirming the Van Allen belt's existence
Nearly eighty have been launched carrying various experiments
Still ongoing www.jpl.nasa.gov/explorer/history http://www.thelivingmoon.com/45jack_files/03files/Laika_First_Dog_in_Space.html www.jpl.nasa.gov/explorer/history Vanguard Program First American satellite program
1955-1959 (with its first launch in 1958, a few months after Explorer I)
Conducted by Naval Research Laboratory
Developed a satellite-tracking system
Vanguard I is still in orbit
Confirmed irregular shape of
Program only orbited 3 of 11 satellites http://www.vanguard-one-50th-anniversary.org/ Race to the Moon Approval for Apollo (May 25, 1961)
“We Choose the Moon” speech (Sept 12, 1962)
JFK suggested Soviets and Americans worked together to reach Moon (Sept 20, 1963)
Khrushchev poised to approve, but Kennedy assassinated
Soviets launched own Moon program (Soyuz/Zond)
later canceled http://www.howstuffworks.com/space-race.htm First artificial earth satellite
Launched in 1957
Remained in orbit until 4 January 1958
It decayed and reentered the atmosphere, having completed 1,440 orbits of the Earth www.jpl.nasa.gov/explorer/history Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit the moon. It was a three man crew containing Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders. The mission took three days and took 10 orbits in 20 hours.
Apollo 11 was the first flight that took men to the moon and was a project of the United States. This was a great achievement because the US had reached the moon before the Soviets. Apollo 17 was the last or most recent moon landing by the United States. The crew consisted of Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans, and Harrison Schmitt. The mission took about 12 days and no one has returned to the moon since. Initiated in 1958, completed in 1963, Project Mercury was the United States' first man-in-space program.
Include 20 unmanned missions
Laid groundwork for Project Gemini Project Mercury The objectives of the program, which made six manned flights from 1961 to 1963, were specific:
To orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth
To investigate man's ability to function in space
To recover both man and spacecraft safely Goals Spacecraft First spacecraft was
Cone-shaped one-man capsule with a cylinder mounted on top
Escape tower was fastened to the cylinder of the capsule
Blunt end was covered with an ablative heat shield Mercury Unmanned
Manned Missions Unmanned missions used chimpanzees
Alan B Shepherd Jr
John Glenn Jr
Scott M Carpenter
L. Gordon Cooper Jr
Donald Slayton (grounded) 1967 1968 1972 1966 http://www.mentallandscape.com/S_Sputnik.htm http://www.govloop.com/profiles/blogs/the-two-faces-of-social-media-at-nasa-1 United States Space Programs Project Mercury (1958-1963)
Project Gemini (1962-1966)
“two-man” space program
Apollo Program (1961-1972)
Dedicated to JFKs goal of landing on Moon
Apollo 8 (1968) – first to orbit celestial body
Apollo 11 (Jul 20, 1969) – Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins- Moon landing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Mercury http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-was-project-mercury-k4.html http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents http://georgesjournal.wordpress.com/2011/04/12/1961-a-space-odyssey-yuri-gagarin-the-first-man-to-leave-and-come-back-to-earth/ http://historyofrussia.org/valentina-tereshkova-facts/ http://www.svengrahn.pp.se/histind/Soyuz1Land/Soyanaly.htm http://www.scenicreflections.com/download/270935/Apollo_8_-_Rising_Earth_Wallpaper/