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Islamic Architecture

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Tisha Sydykova

on 10 November 2012

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Transcript of Islamic Architecture

Content: What is Islamic Architecture? Mosque
-Building traditions of Muslim populations of the Middle East and elsewhere from the 7th century on

-A wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture

-Combination of styles and techniques that were borrowed from throughout the Muslim lands and combined in a unique artistic approach.

-Solemn identity of peoples and civilizations Masjid - "place of prostration"

Place for Worship in Islam

In a masjid, Muslims pray five times a day following an Imam facing in the direction of the Kaaba in Makkah. There are different mosques throughout the

Yet there are those features that almost all mosques have in common: minaret, prayer hall, mihrab, minbar, dome etc. The
Architecture Meerim Talantbek kyzy IBL 109
Altynai Sydykova ICP 109 Royal Courtyard, Meknes, Morocco "If one were to reply to the question 'what is Islam?' by simply pointing to one of the masterpieces of Islamic art such as, for example, the Mosque of Cordova, or that of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, or one of the madrasahs in Samarqand....that reply, summary as it is, would be nonetheless valid, for the art of Islam expresses what its name indicates, and it does so without ambiguity."
-Titus Burckhardt, 1976 Minaret The tower from which the faithful are called to prayer 5 times each day;
Dome, an open pavilion, or a metal-covered cone.
The steps
“landmarks of Islām”—visible from afar and to stamp a site with Islāmic character Mihrab -An ornamental indentation in the wall;

-marks the direction of the qiblah;

-varies in size and color, usually shaped
like a doorway;

-decorated with tiles and calligraphy
to make it stand out;

-amplifies the voice of the Imam during
congregational prayer.

In modern times, microphones are
usually used for this purpose. . What is Islamic Architecture?
The Mosque
Main features of the Architecture of Islamic buildings
Symbolism of the Islamic Architecture
Specifics of Mosque - making a human closer to his Creator The Paradise The stage of observance Why is Islamic Architecture Islamic? Symbols & metaphors
Principle of functionality
Unity in diversity
Demonstration of all dimensions of Islam As Augusto Romano Burelli states in relation to the mosques of Sinan, “the purpose of decoration is not the making-explicit of chosen constructive details, but rather [by] masking and blurring of the constructive procedure followed, ... decoration tends to function as a reconciler of opposites.” Islamic architecture was in harmony with the people, their environment and their Creator. Yet no strict rules were applied to govern Islamic architecture. The great mosques of Cordoba, Edirne and Shah Jahan Delhi each used local geometry, local materials, local building methods to express in their own ways the order, harmony and unity of Islamic architecture.
(“The Future of Islamic Architecture”) The mosque is a place where all tensions are brought to equilibrium and harmony
The mosque should represent the perfect world, while also referring to the afterlife that is promised to the faithful the forests The opening to paradise gardens rivers of paradise the Madrasa Imami in Isfahan, founded in 755 A.H./1354 A.D The Morrocan Pavillian in Putrajaya,
Malaysia Not furnished
God is omnipresent & is always watching
Ablution fountains
Removal of shoes
Washing feet, ears, face Edirne Old Mosque, Turkey The Entrance
The location of the Mosque
The Spiral “But for those who follow their duty to their God, for them there are lofty rooms with lofty halls above them... beneath which rivers flow. ... [There they rest,] sojourning in gardens where they will.”(Sura XXXIX, 20-73-74) The music, the architecture follow the circular progression Musala - a place for prayer - A large open space
-no furniture is needed;

-Along the walls - bookshelves with Quran

-Prayer rugs: prayers in a clean area, adorned: geometric, floral, arabesque http://islamic-arts.org/2012/the-suleymaniye-mosque-a-virtual-walking-tour/ References: All of the pictures were taken from http://islamic-cultures.tumblr.com/archive
Omer, Spahic, Towards Understanding Islamic Architecture, Islamic Studies, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Winter 2008), pp. 483-510
Erzen, Jale Nejdet, Reading Mosques: Meaning and Architecture in Islam, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism,2011, pp. 125-131
Virtual Tour: http://islamic-arts.org/category/architecture/mosques/, 2012 - A raised platform in the front area of a mosque, from which sermons or
speeches are given;

- located to the right of the mihrab;

- made of carved wood, stone, or brick;

- includes a short staircase leading to the top platform, which is sometimes
covered by a small dome. At the bottom of the staircase there may be a gate or
doorway. The speaker walks up the steps and either sits or stands on the minbar
while addressing the congregation.

- helps to amplify the voice of the speaker
Provincial governors -speeches The Dome Rooftop, particularly in the Middle East.

This architectural element holds no spiritual
or symbolic significance, and is purely aesthetic.

The interior of a dome is usually
highly decorated with floral, geometric and
other patterns. Minbar Madrasah the importance of unity and order geometric ornamentation in Islamic art suggests a remarkable amount of freedom; in its repetition and complexity, it offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of ornamentation as well. In terms of their abstractness, repetitive motifs, and symmetry, geometric patterns have much in common with the so-called arabesque style seen in many vegetal designs. Calligraphic ornamentation also appears in conjunction with geometric patterns.

The four basic shapes, or "repeat units," from which the more complicated patterns are constructed are: circles and interlaced circles; squares or four-sided polygons; the ubiquitous star pattern, ultimately derived from squares and triangles inscribed in a circle; and multisided polygons. It is clear, however, that the complex patterns found on many objects include a number of different shapes and arrangements, allowing them to fit into more than one category. The Islamic resistance to the representation of living beings ultimately stems from the belief that the creation of living forms is unique to God, and it is for this reason that the role of images and image makers has been controversial. The strongest statements on the subject of figural depiction are made in the Hadith (Traditions of the Prophet), where painters are challenged to "breathe life" into their creations and threatened with punishment on the Day of Judgment. The Qur’an is less specific but condemns idolatry and uses the Arabic term musawwir ("maker of forms," or artist) as an epithet for God. Partially as a result of this religious sentiment, figures in painting were often stylized and, in some cases, the destruction of figurative artworks occurred. Iconoclasm was previously known in the Byzantine period and aniconicism was a feature of the Judaic world, thus placing the Islamic objection to figurative representations within a larger context. As ornament, however, figures were largely devoid of any larger significance and perhaps therefore posed less challenge. Geometric and Vegetal Patterns Calligraphy Ceiling of Mohammed al-Amin Mosque in Beirut, Lebanon http://www.nomadinception.com/op-islamic-geometric-design-in-Arabic-architecture.aspx# Modern Islamic Architecture http://www.nomadinception.com/op-islamic-geometric-design-in-Arabic-architecture.aspx Thank you for
Attention! The Light
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