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Copy of Copy of Copy of Wine Grapes
Ignacio Alpresaon 30 May 2014
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Copy of Wine Grapes
Cooler regions: apple and fresher, grape notes are predominant
Warmer regions: citrus and peach
Early ripening compared to international varieties; late ripening for Germany
Long, slow ripening extracts flavours but maintains acidity
Produced to be bone dry, sparkling, or lusciously sweet.
Capable due to high levels of natural acidity but also the development of high sugar levels.
Hardy grape; cold winters do not affect it, nor do spring frosts.
Noble rot, however, loves Riesling.
blended and does ntbenefit from MLF or barrel ageing
Grows in cool and moderate climates
Ripens in cool climates
Thin skins means low phenolic compounds
Light coloured, medium-bodied wines
Low yields, difficult to grow
Fertile soils not an option to control vigour
still grows in sandy to heavy clay soils though
The prefix Gewürz comes from the german word for spice
The typical aromas are perfumed.
Its flavors are saucy, bold, kinetic, and extroverted.
Litchi nuts, gingerbread, vanilla, grapefruit, smoke, stones, minerals,
Occasionally mistaken for sweetness, but many gewürztraminers are dry.
Most recent and most plantings are in Germany's Pfalz region, and France's Alsace.
Planted since at least the turn of the first millennium, it's native home is Alto Adige.
Brought over from Greece by the Romans around 1000AD
Known in Italy as Traminer
Earned it's prefix during the middle ages in Germany
Plantings in Alsace began in the late 1800s.
Small clusters with small, pinkish berries after veraison
Low-yielding and prone to poor fruit set.
The vine's early bud break makes it prone to frost.
Grows best in chalky limestone or clay soil.
Requires ample drainage on slopes.
Vigorous vine; it must be trained and pruned if planted in deep, fertile soils.
Gewurztraminer operates better in cool climate. However, it also requires abundant sun and sparse rain to archive concentration, especially at higher altitudes.
Small clusters and high vigor mean that Gewürztraminer should be head trained and cane pruned in order to leave an adequate number of buds.
Californian Gewurtz is cordon trained and spur pruned. When cordon trained and spur pruned, shoot thinning may be minimal, making mechanical pre-pruning advisable.
Low- to moderate-vigor sites require VSP systems
On high- vigor sites, split canopy systems can be used to increase the yield potential and balance vegetative growth.
Because fruit set is variable, shoot thinning is often delayed until after set or is not performed at all so that all shoots with clusters are kept in order to maximize yield.
Leaf removal can be used to reduce the risk of Botrytis bunch rot.
Spain or Sardegna?
A constant fight to determine the grape's birthplace.
In accordance to Russian argonomist Vavilov (1926) "...the area of greatest diversity is usually the origin of the crop."
We see Grenache Gris and Blanc along with other morphological variants in Spain, but not on Sardegna
Early budding, late ripening
This means it must be grown in fairly warm climates, but typically, hot dry climates.
Vigorous; less so on sandy soils.
susceptible to downy mildew, botrytis and millendrage.
Great drought resistance.
Resistant to wood diseases, hence old-vine labeling or vine age statements.
Bush trained in windy areas and pruned short.
High sugar levels.
Loss of colour in high yields, but typically a pale garnet.
A varying degree of tannins based on the vine's water stress.
Gravel or stony
Gallets in Chateauneuf-du-Pape
High limestone contet
Most planted variet after Merlot, predominantly in the Southern Rhone.
Typically blended with Syrah and Mourvedre
Produces rose wines with apparent herbal notes.
Tavel AOC produces solely rose wines from Grenache grapes.
All grenache colours are used extensively for Vin Doux Naturels, often aged oxidatively to promote rancio notes from the old, sun-drenched barrels.
Banyuls, Maury and Rivesaltes.
Known as Cannonau
Sardegna's most imporant grape
Vinified dry and sweet, both for table and fortified wines
ABV regularly over 15%
Although the homeland, Garnacha's plantings are in decline.
Third most planted black varietal in Spain.
It is primarily used for roses in Navarra.
Prone to rot
Lower vigor than Shiraz or Cabernet Sauvignon
Requires canopy management for its tight clusters
A variety of clones available (~1000)
Great expressionist of terroir
Favours calcareous substrate
Blends with Meunier and Chardonnay in Champagne
Russian River, Carneros, CA
Walker Bay, South Africa
Central Otago, Marlborough, NZ
Grape Variety Project
Bests suited soils are well drained with poor fertility.
Slate and sandy loam are ideal.
Good Riesling reflrects ad expresses the terroir in which it is grown.
's most planted varietal, most famously gown in
Widely planted in
It's pseudonyms include Brunello and Prugnolo Gentile
Significant plantings in
plantings increased in the 80s and 90s with the rise of Supertuscans
Growth and Soils
Medium to high vigour
Late ripening (early-mid October
Adapts well to a variety of soils
Limestone is most beneficial
Shallow soils on gentle slopes to moderate vigour
Grape & Leaf Characteristics
Medium-sized, oval, blue to black berries
Thin skins susceptible to rot
Frequently with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot to produce Supertuscans
Canaiolo, Ciliegio, Mammoio, Colorino and Malvasia for Chianti
Blending seeks to add flesh to its sizeable, but not always sensual structure
Tempranillo grape is the Spanish red grape flagship. Tempranillo’s parents are Albillo Mayor or Turruntés and Benedicto (not yet planted grape except residual areas). Therefore the previous theory of being a development of the Pinot Noir has been cast aside
Some other areas
its main areas are Rioja, Ribera del Duero including the rest of the appellation of the region and La Mancha, which is the biggest vineyard in the world and after the Airén it is easy to find the Cencibel (local name for Tempranillo)
, where is a basic grape in the blend of Porto along with the Touriga Nacional;
, in Languedoc Region; in
in the Alto Agide Region,
California, Oregon, Argentina, México
and some increasing plantings in
, once the high vigor of Tempranillo looks that it has been tamed in the Austral Country
: La Mancha –Cencibel;
Ribera del Duero –Tinto Fino/ Tinto del País
Toro –Tinta de Toro
Madrid – Tinta de Madrid- Penedès –Ull de Llebre (hare’s eye);
; Malvasia Nera;
; Tinta Roriz or Aragonez;
Some other “main” names…
Medium-sized to large compact bunches of small, thick-skinned berries. Tempanillo comes from the Spanish word “Temprano” that means “early”, therefore Tempranillo is early both budding and ripening.
Pruning & Trellising
Tempranillo success in Rioja in chalky clays where chalk gives an extra of acidity and elegance and clay gives body where Tempranillo is normally medium to high in body and tannins.
In Ribera del Duero limestone confers a solid structure
coping with hot conditions it needs to live in cool to moderate climate conditions in order to achieve the needed acidity but for getting the deep colour heat is needed.
Tempranillo has a drawback on this sense, once the time exact time of harvesting is being passed, the acidity drops really fast.
in Spain for this grape is gobelet or “in vaso” in order to mitigate such vigor that could downgrade wine quality for being diluted. Currently the VSP system of spur pruning is suitable to deal with the high yield and the resulting permanent wood for this pruning method would be perfect to deal with spring frost due to the early budding
How it tastes?
Ribera del Duero - Toro
Tempranillo copes perfectly with oak and standalone, shows n extremely high potential showed in some iconic wines such as Teso la Monja, Pingus and the starlet Vega Sicilia, is considered as a grape that barely reflects terroir aspect, being a straightforward wine with medium to high acidity and tannin
Rioja enjoys a maritime factor. Wines are lower in alcohol, circa 12,5 ABV and results silkier and softer. the taste of the young Tempranillo are strawberry, inky and vanilla flavored with a deep ruby colour. In this region the blend normally goes with Graciano (Morrastel in France), Mazuelo (Carignan) and Garnacha (Grenache) or some French varieties.
Toro are acidic and tannic wines with higher level of alcohol, the fruitiness of the table wines are blackberries, mulberries, black cherries and raspberries including a savory butter character at young. Here the blend normally will go with Cabernet Sauvignon and in some case the local white grape Albillo
Finally when ages...
In both cases with some differences in aging moves towards tobacco, plum, prunes and cocoa and in long oak aging dried fruits and coffee beans takes the flavor place along with a strong savory aspect.
a crossing of
Riesling x Madeleine Royale
-Because of historical confusion over its parentage, many incorrect ancestries have been suggested (most commonly Riesling X Silvaner)
-Commonly called Rivaner in Austria and Luxembourg or Slovenia in Germany
-Has played a large role in the development on various wine industries (Germany after WW2 and New Zealand in the 1950s)
Large thin skinned berries
-thus prone to rot
-dull flabby wines are produced if yields are excessively high
-does not age well
Lightly aromatic, citrus fruit with a hint of Muscat character. low to medium acidity
Peach, low acidity,
Wines can be dry to medium sweet
Blends with: Riesling, Silvaner, Kerner (in Liebfraumilch), and Morio Muskat (aromatic medium whites)
Grows well in various soils as long as good drainage is present
Hungary, 8,000 ha (20,000 acres)
Belgium, 0,5 ha at Château Bon Baron in Lustin
Austria, 5236 ha (12,933 acres) (7,8%)
Slovakia 1, 362 ha
Luxembourg, as Rivaner
Switzerland, as Riesling x Silvaner,
Republic of Macedonia, endemic species as Kratosija
Croatia, locally known as Rizvanac
Growing Regions cont.
Australia – Mudgee wine region
New Zealand – Now a marginal grape.
United States of America
Japan (not highlighted)
Pure Vinifera grape coming from the cross between Carignane and Cabernet Sauvignon in University of California Davis (USA)
Where it thrives?
Long time ago a popular grape currently in clear decline, still planted in
San Joaquin Valley (CA
) and Hispanic American countries.
In some way in certain fashion in Australia (Riberina, Riverland and Murray Darling) and in South Africa due to reliable high yielding
Generous crops from this medium-size to large berries
Highly resistant to hot conditions
More on Ruby...
Late budding and
late harvesting grape. Ruby Cabernet i
s resistant to botrytis but vulner
able to powdery mildew. Vigorous if pla
nted on sandy-loam
or clay-loam soils
And taste like...
Slightly rustic grape
Low in acidity
Medium in tannins
Some flavors clearly coming from Cabernet Sauvignon and deep coloured from Carignane
Usually blended, lacks complexity and structure,
But some good examples...
...can be found in Texas High Plains AVA (TX) thanks to the cooler conditions at high altitude
as regards pruning and trellising, it works well with spur pruning at VPS trellising
Comes from the Italian word “nebbia” that means fog. Called Chiavenesca (Lombardy), Picoutener (Northern Piedmont) or Spanna (Novara)
This is one the flagships when you talk on red grapes in Italy.
Nebbiolo belongs to Piedmont specially the hilly area of Langhe and of course the great appellations of DOCG Barolo and DOCG Barbaresco
Some other places are Australia (Margaret River, Mornington Peninsula) and some can be found in California and Chile
Small berries and compact bunches
High quality potential grape
Easily express the concept of terroir
Cane pruned in Barolo and Barbaresco Area
Early budding and later ripening
.... And more
Nebbiolo is a sensitive grape to wind, wet and cool conditions. Considering its short growing season, fits perfectly with extreme Continental climate.
Able to cope with different soil conditions, where clay, loamy, sandy, schist or granitic works well (the list is longer)
In this type of wines, complex and exotic flavors can be found to tar and roses...
...cherries, damsons, mulberries, leather, herbs, spice, licorice and dried fruit can be detected
Nebbiolo wines are sensitive to oak and while aging loose their fruitiness to move into very savory and meaty taste.