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Language Paper Two: Section B: Writing

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Paul Hanson

on 25 November 2018

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Transcript of Language Paper Two: Section B: Writing

Language Paper Two: Section B: Writing
Reminders
Three black pens.
Canteen from 8.30.
Don't be late to school.

Section B: Expressing a Viewpoint
This task will require that you produce a written text to a specified
audience
,
purpose
and
form
in which you give their own perspective on the
theme
that has been introduced to you in section A.

Theme
The theme could be anything, whatever is in the Section A texts. This will be made clear in the question.

Remember, this means that you can be inspired for ideas by what you have just read.

Audience
You need to show awareness of who you are writing for. It will state who the audience is in the question itself. It might be:
young people
parents
teachers
the local council

What might they be interested in or care about?

How will what you write about impact on them?

Try to manipulate their thinking and actions.
Purpose
The purpose will be in the question and will be either:
persuade or
argue or
explain or
advise

Persuade gives a one-sided view that aims to get the reader to agree.

Argue gives two sides, although you will probably need to favour one side over the other.

Explain gives lots of developed ideas and reasons about a theme.

Advice makes suggestions and gives information.
Form
You could be asked to write any of the following:
an article
a formal letter
a speech
a blog
a diary or journal entry

Form
Articles need headings and subheadings and usually begin and end with anecdotes.

Letters need salutations (Dear Sir/Madam) and valedictions (Yours faithfully).

Speeches go out 'live', salutations and valedictions too.

Blogs are internet diaries but they are published online for others to read.

Diaries and journals are very personal. This is the least likely form to come up.
Language Style
This is entirely dictated by the purpose:
persuade means all ATRAPPERISEE
argue means all ATRAPPERISEE plus opinions from both sides
explain might be a mix of ATRAPPERISEE, plus some descriptive methods and some information
advice means giving suggestions and information
Persuasive and Argumentative Techniques (AO5)
anecdote
tricolon/triplet/rule of three
rhetorical question
assertion (strong opinions)
personal pronouns
possessive pronouns
emotive language
repetition
imperative
statistics
expert opinion
exaggeration/hyperbole
modals
alliteration
contrast
simile
metaphor
facts
proper nouns
'Wow!' word choice
Explanatory Techniques (AO5)
anecdote
tricolon/triplet/rule of three
rhetorical question
assertion (strong opinions)
personal pronouns
possessive pronouns
emotive language
repetition
imperative
statistics
expert opinion
exaggeration/hyperbole
modals
alliteration
contrast
simile
metaphor
facts
proper nouns
'Wow!' word choice
lots of developed explanation, reasons, outcomes and effects
Advisory Techniques (AO5)
anecdote
tricolon/triplet/rule of three
rhetorical question
assertion (strong opinions)
personal pronouns
possessive pronouns
emotive language
repetition
lots and lots of imperative
statistics
expert opinion
exaggeration/hyperbole
modals
alliteration
contrast
simile
metaphor
facts
proper nouns
'Wow!' word choice
lots of developed suggestions and information
Organisation (AO5)
The examiner will be assessing the structure of your writing. Remember:
to paragraph in a logical, effective way
to use discourses markers that lead your reader clearly through the writing
to link sentences and paragraphs with discourse markers
to begin and end your writing with an anecdote
SPaG (AO6)
Your spelling needs to be as accurate as possible.
Use a wide range of accurate punctuation:
capital letters
fill stops (.)
commas (,)
question marks (?)
semi-colons (;)
colons (:)
brackets ( )
apostrophes (')
dashes (-)
hyphens to join words (-)
Discourse Markers (AO5)
however
whereas
in addition
yet
moreover
similarly
by contrast
in essence
essentially
therefore
that said
to begin
primarily
firstly
secondly
thirdly
lastly
finally
in conclusion
to summarise
previously
later
nevertheless
on the other hand
in comparison
nonetheless
yet
that said...
for example
for instance
clearly
despite
Use a range of sentence forms:
simple sentences
minor sentences
complex sentences
compound sentences
declarative (facts and opinions)
interrogatives (questions)
imperatives
conditionals
no exclamations

SPaG (AO6) Errors
No other grammatical errors, such as:
sentence fragments
verb conjugation mix ups
Writing Formally
You can't use slang or informal language, even if you are writing to young people.

On the next slides are some helpful phrases you might use.
Helpful Phrases:
Differences of Opinion

Some might argue that...
Whilst some people might suggest...
Of course, not everyone will agree...
Another view might be....
Naturally, in an ideal world we would all agree. However...
And yet, a contrasting perspective might include...
Many readers may well feel...
Helpful Phrases:
Giving Reasons

Another idea to consider is...
However, this is not the only view...
It is vital that...
For some time, there has been a real need for...
Therefore, this is a significant area for consideration...
Helpful Phrases:
Sequencing

Firstly, it is evident that...
Secondly, another interesting consideration is...
In addition, one could argue that...
Finally, the result would simply be that...
Helpful Phrases: Being Polite yet Persuasive
I am sure that you will agree that...
We are all too well aware of the concerns...
We all have the best interests of [insert example] at heart...
Would you please consider...
Why You Have to Plan
People who plan produce more powerful pieces.

Your ideas, structure and language use will all benefit from pre-planning.
Your Situation Statement
What do I hope to accomplish?
Why is it important to me?
Who is my audience and why is it important to them?
If the task is persuade, argue or advise:
what benefits would be achieved (three ideas minimum)?
what problems would be eliminated (two ideas minimum)?
how would other people be affected?
What obstacles must be overcome?
If the task is explain:
what details do you need to give?
what information should you share?

The Plan
1. anecdote.
7. back to the anecdote to round off.
6. next idea to follow from the one before.
5. next idea to follow from the one before.
4. next idea to follow from the one before.
3. next idea to follow from the one before.
2. first idea, linked to anecdote.
Plan
Helpful Phrases: Making it Personal to the Reader
Good evening, my friends, peers and classmates...
As [insert group], we all want the best possible outcome for our [insert example]...
Your generous contribution will make a huge difference to...
You will be a direct beneficiary of...
On behalf of [inert name], I thank you for…
Recap
Underline the key parts of the question.
Identify the purpose, audience, form and then the language style.
Make a plan!
Write six or seven paragraphs hitting all of AO5 and AO6.
Give yourself at least five minutes to check for errors.
Exemplar Answer
Let's look at an exemplar I wrote to identify where it hits the marks.

Begin by reading the heading and first paragraph.

Which ATRAPPERISEE methods can you see?
'Why should young people learn about the effects of discrimination?'

When I was twelve
, I was with a group of friends in the park. We were having
a whale of time, playing football and looking for conkers
. Anyway, some older boys from
our
school came sauntering over and took the ball, claiming that we couldn’t play with it unless we told our friend Jatinder, who was a Sikh, to go away. Now, Jatinder was a good friend, a great friend, a really wonderful guy, but these boys were much
bigger
and
much older
than us and we were
terrified
that they would beat us up. So, what did we do? Did we
betray
our friend? Or, did we stand up against the bullies, who picked on someone just because of he was different?

More Methods
What can you see in the next paragraph?
Linking Paragraphs
How have I tried to link the paragraphs to create a seamless transition from one to next?
...the Nazis even murdered millions of people, six million alone just because they were Jewish.

So, what does this have to do with young people needing to learn about discrimination?
Well, Dr Whitney, from Houston University, argues that...

Linking for a Higher Mark
How do I do it between paragraphs four and five?
For instance, we have learned about the tragedy of Emmett Till and the inspiration of Rosa Parks and Dr Martin Luther King Jnr.

‘I say to you today, my friends’, that I too ‘have a dream’.
I have a dream that one day children of all colours, genders and races will learn together in peace and harmony.
Discourse Marker
Underline all the discourse markers in paragraph one.
When I was twelve
, I was with a group of friends in the park. We were having a whale of time, playing football and looking for conkers.
Anyway
, some older boys from our school came sauntering over and took the ball, claiming that we couldn’t play with it unless we told our friend Jatinder, who was a Sikh, to go away.
Now
, Jatinder was a good friend, a great friend, a really wonderful guy, but these boys were much bigger and much older than us and we were terrified that they would beat us up.
So
, what did we do? Did we betray our friend?
Or
, did we stand up against the bullies, who picked on someone just because of he was different?


Remember, this is a speech, so it uses spoken discourse marks. An article for a broadsheet newspaper would need ones like 'therefore', 'in addition and so on.
Topping 'n' Tailing
How have I linked the beginning to the end to hold the whole piece together?
When I was twelve, I was with a group of friends in the park. We were having a whale of time, playing football and looking for conkers. Anyway, some older boys from our school came sauntering over and took the ball, claiming that we couldn’t play with it unless we told our friend Jatinder, who was a Sikh, to go away. Now,
Jatinder
was a good friend, a great friend, a really wonderful guy, but these boys were much bigger and much older than us and we were terrified that they would beat us up. So, what did we do?
Did we betray our friend? Or, did we stand up against the bullies, who picked on someone just because of he was different?



I begin and end with the anecdote about my friend. This holds the whole piece together and makes it seem really sophisticated.




Finally,
you are probably wondering what happened to Jatinder
.
Did we abandon and betray him?
Did we allow others to discriminate him? No, we did not. We stood tall, a solid wall and told the bullies to ‘Get lost!’ And, do you know what, my friend, they did just that.
rhetorical question
tricolon/rule of three
anecdote
comparatives
possessive pronouns
emotive language

My friend
,
discrimination is wrong
.
I believe it. You believe it. Everyone believes it.
Or, do they? All over the world,
kind, sweet and decent
people are discriminated against by
cruel, selfish and stupid

people. They are maltreated; they are bullied; sometimes they are even killed. For example, women don’t get the jobs they deserve; people are attacked for the colour of their skin; the Nazis even murdered millions of people,
six million
alone just because they were Jewish.

direct address
assertion
repetition
statistics
contrast
The question here links back to the end of the previous paragraph.
The Dr Martin Luther King Jnr/'I have a dream' speech.
M
y friend
,
discrimination is wrong
.

I
believe it
.

Y
ou believe it
.

E
veryone believes it
. O
r
,
do they
?

A
ll over the world
,
kind, sweet and decent people are discriminated against by cruel
,
selfish and stupid people
.

T
hey are maltreated
;
they are bullied
;
sometimes they are even killed
. F
or example
,
women don

t get the jobs they deserve
;
people are attacked for the colour of their skin
;
the Nazis even murdered millions of people
,
six million alone just because they were Jewish
.

S
o
,
what does this have to do with young people needing to learn about discrimination
?

W
ell
,

D
r
W
hitney
,
from
H
ouston
U
niversity
,
argues that
:


I believe the children are our future
.

T
each them well and let them lead the way
. S
how them all the beauty they possess inside
.’

T
herefore
,
it is vital that we teach them the tragedy of discrimination
,
so that they can make a better
,
brighter future for us all
.
Punctuation
How many different types of punctuation have I used?
Recap
Underline the key parts of the question.
Identify the purpose, audience, form and then the language style.
Make a plan!
Write six or seven paragraphs hitting all of AO5 and AO6.
Give yourself at least five minutes to check for errors.
Good luck!
Any more methods?

My friend, this is your chance to fulfill the promise of our dream.
Listen and learn
from your teachers about the perils of discrimination.
Don’t stand
idly by when you see it taking place.
Stand up
for what you believe and then, perhaps, if you are ever on the receiving end of discrimination someone else may stand up for you too. As the great Bob Marley once sang,
‘Get up! Stand up! Stand up for your rights!’ That’s right!

conditional
expert opinion
imperatives
Grammatical Errors
This type of writing often leads to students making grammatical mistakes that have an enormous detrimental impact on marks.
Amy disguising her feelings.
As she was uncertain in this unfamiliar situation.
(Fragment)

Amy disguised her feelings: she was uncertain in this unfamiliar situation.

Amy was disguising her feelings, as she was uncertain in this unfamiliar situation.

Remember, -ing verbs cannot be the main verb in a sentence. There always needs to be a subject, a main verb and a full idea.
We
was
together all night.
(verb conjugation)

We
were
together all night.
‘Extreme sports seems fun and exciting but in reality they result in accidents, inconvenience and economic disruption.’
Write an
article
for a
broadsheet

newspaper
in which you
explain
your point of view on this issue.
(24 marks for content and organisation/16 marks for accuracy)
[40 marks]

‘Fast food should be banned. It damages people's health and the environment.’
Write a
letter
to your
local newspaper
in which you
argue for or agains
t this statement.
(24 marks for content and organisation/16 marks for technical accuracy)
[40 marks]

'Litter, graffiti, vandalised equipment and damaged resources are increasing in schools across Britain.’
Write the text of a
speech
for a
debate at your school
or college in which you
persuade students
to
take responsibility for keeping the school clean and litter free.
(24 marks for content and organisation/16 marks for technical accuracy)
[40 marks]

‘Young people have no sense of responsibility. Some have everything done for them; some were never taught responsibility at all.'
Students should be relaxing in their free time.’
Write an
article
for a
broadsheet newspaper
in which you
explain
your point of view on this statement.
(24 marks for content and organisation/16 marks for technical accuracy)
[40 marks]
Your Learning Journey
Read back through your successes and areas for improvement in your red books.
What have you done well at?
What do you need to work on?
How are you going to achieve this?

I'll be testing you in five minutes.


A TRAPPER I SEE:
Anecdotes
Triplets
Rhetorical questions
Assertions
Personal pronouns
Possessive pronouns
Emotive language
Repetition
Imperatives
Statistics
Expert opinion
Exaggeration.
Full transcript