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Psychology of Advertising
Transcript of Psychology of Advertising
Walter Dill Scott
John B. Watson Psychologist/Advertisers Harlow Gale The first psychologist to work in advertising 1895 sent a questionnaire to 200 businesses in Minnesota inquiring about perspectives on advertising and their practices. What does advertising do? We usually assume that advertising functions mostly to tell us about the properties of a product. A particular detergent might advertise that it gets stains out better than competitors, that it smells good, and that it leaves clothes feeling fresh. We believe that these properties are ones that will help us to choose the detergent we want to buy. The Psychology of Advertising Advertising Techniques Affective conditioning Affective Conditioning To take a product and to put it next to lots of other things that we already feel positively about.
For example, an ad for detergent may have fresh flowers, cute babies, and sunshine in it. Create a need Appeal to social needs Persuasion in everyday life A paper slated to appear in the December, 2010 issue of the Journal of Consumer Research by Melanie Dempsey and Andrew Mitchell suggests that the picture might not be so rosy. These researchers did two clever studies that ought to make us think twice about how much advertising we allow ourselves to be exposed to. Dempsey/ Mitchell Studies told people about two brands of pens. One brand had better properties than the other. So, objectively, that better brand is the one people should have picked. Before making a choice about the pens, though, the people in the experimental group watched pictures on a screen that flashed quickly. These pictures paired the brand name of the pen that had the worse set of properties with a lot of positive items. The people who went through the affective conditioning procedure picked the pen that was paired with positive items 70-80% of the time. They chose this pen, even though they had information that the other pen was better. Over the two studies in this paper, the authors found that people chose the pen that was paired with positive objects even when people were given as much time as they wanted to make a choice, and even when the instructions specifically encouraged them to pick the best choice and to say why they were choosing a particular pen. These results suggest that the most powerful effect of advertising is just to create a good feeling about a product by surrounding it with other things that you like. It is also important to point out that affective conditioning is most effective when you don't realize that it is happening. That is, trying to pay less attention to the ads you see on TV and in magazines may actually make this type of advertising more effective. So, why do we choose things just because we feel good about them? The world is a busy place. It is hard for us to feel confident that we have all of the objective facts about anything, whether it is products, people, or choices of things to do. The feelings we have are often a good marker of what is safe to do and what is likely to turn out well. If we have to make a choice, and one of the options just feels good to us, then we are likely to go with the one that feels good.
Most of the time, of course, that is a good idea. Often, we feel good about something because we have had positive experiences with it in the past. The problem is that we allow advertisers to have access to our mental world. They have paid for the opportunity to slip information to us about what feels good. That information ultimately affects the way we make choices, whether we know it or not. WHHHYYY? One method of persuasion involves creating a need or an appealing a previously exiting need. This type of persuasion appeals to a person's fundamental needs for shelter, love, self-esteem and self-actualization and SEX. Creating a NEED Another very effective persuasive method appeals to the need to be popular, prestigious or similar to others. Television commercials provide many example of this type of persuasion, where viewers are encouraged to purchase items so they can be like everyone else or be like a well-known or well-respected person. Television advertisements are a huge source of exposure to persuasion considering that some estimates claim that the average American watches between 1,500 to 2,000 hours of television every year. Appeal To Social Needs Persuasion also often makes use of loaded words and images. Advertisers are well aware of the power of positive words, which is why so many advertisers utilize phrases such as "New and Improved" or "All Natural." Loaded Words Psychology in advertising has long been used as an effective means to sell a product or service. Understanding the underlying concepts that affect human psychology help companies better sell their product. Alternatively can help a consumer understand marketing strategies that get them to buy products. Psychology in Advertising Elaboration Likelihood Model Theory Central may alter a person’s belief based on cognitive processes occuring at the time of persuasion Peripheral determines whether you favor the persuation or not the validity of the information being presented has to do with the fact that people cannot fully and thoroughly analyze every bit of information they come across Authority Authority "...two out of three doctors reccomend..." People respect opinions of someone who is assumed to have expertise on the subject Makes people feel better about buying a product knowing Attention Catching Attention Catchers Beautiful people Famous people Bright colors consumers automatically assume that it must work well for somebody of such high a status to use it. appeals to our feelings and emotions rather than the mind. When you use your mind the logical part kicks in and uses a different set of criteria. Studies have poven that even infants prefer to look at attractive faces over unattractive ones, so this is innate within us. Also other studies showed looking at beautiful peoples tended to reduce stress and makes people feel good. make people hungry, associate a positive or negative tone, encourage trust, feelings of calmness or energy, and countless other ways.