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Unit 17 - Psychology of Sports Performance

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Jonathon Hoare

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Unit 17 - Psychology of Sports Performance

Unit 17 - Psychology of Sports Performance
Group Dynamics in Team Sports
Cohesion and Leadership

Recap - 2 weeks ago
Difference between a group and a team?
Tuckman's Stages of group development?
Steiner's Model of group effectiveness -
Co-ordination v Motivational faults
Ringelmann effect?
Social loafing?
Interactive and coactive groups
On your tables, come up with your own definition of cohesion

‘A dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives
’’ (Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 1998).

In pairs compare and contrast these two pictures - think about each team's cohesiveness, and why they are cohesive....
Social Cohesion: Pub team?
Enjoy each other's company
Enjoyment not dependent on result
Task Cohesion: Bayern?
How well team members work together
Work to achieve common goals and objectives
Which is more important?
In pairs......How can a productive and successful team climate be created? Think about:
What a coach can do?
What can team members do?
Come up with
ideas for each.

Creating an effective team climate

Communicate well
Set individual goals
Develop team goals (Senecal, Loughead, and Bloom, 2008)
Know your individual team members
Individual role clarity (Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron, 2002)
Encourage team identity
Minimise changes/group sizes (ringlemann?)
Team Members:
Help each other
Take responsibility for own actions
Put in maximum effort
Resolve conflicts
Get to know each other
Factors affecting cohesion:
Get into groups of four - work as a team!
Each pick one of these four factors (
environmental, personal, leadership, team
Individually research your factor
Get together and explain how each factor affects cohesion
Brain storm?
Cohesion and Performance
How does cohesion impact upon performance? Think about:
Interactive sports Vs Coactive sports

Make a list of the qualities and behaviours that good leaders demonstrate
Leadership Styles
Get into groups of three:
Each of you pick one of these three leadership styles (autocratic, democratic, laissez faire)
Research the characteristics your leadership style demonstrates - effects of this leadership style?
Come up with an example of somebody that demonstrates your leadership style
What leadership style do you demonstrate?
Share your findings with the other members of your group
Objectives Revisit
Thank you
big thumbs up
Assignment hand
in date:
02/06/14 (first day back)
Team building/bonding sessions (Hacker, 2001., Kornspan, 2009)
Cohesion, What is it? and why are sport psychologist's so interested in it?
P5 - identify four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
M3 - explain four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
D2 - analyse four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports

Identify, explain and analyse 4 factors (Choose 2 x factors from ‘group processes’, 1 x from ‘cohesion’ and 1 x from leadership) which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
Group Activity
#Eyesontheprize = Distinctions
In your groups, choose which type of cohesion you believe has the biggest influence on sport performance!!! Create a mind map with points that Justify your choice.
Creating an Effective Team Climate
Team Members
Task - Positive or negative influence on team cohesion?
5 mins
Factors Affecting Cohesion
10 mins
Closer in terms of location
Smaller in size
=Greater opportunities to interact and form relationships
Characteristics of group members
Similar aims and objectives
Similar backgrounds, attitudes, opinions and commitment
=Increased cohesiveness
Leadership styles, behaviours, communication
Compatibility of coach-athlete personalities
=Impact on cohesion
Duration spent together
Experience success/failure
Involved in decision making
= Increased productivity and cohesiveness
Carron's (1982) Model of Cohesion - four factors that effect cohesion
Caron's Model of Cohesion (1982)
Qualities of a good leader
Peer Respect
Expert knowledge/skills
Interpersonal skills
Communication skills
Role model
Prescribed verses Emergent Leaders
Not selected by group/team
Appointed by authority figures
Clubs appointing new managers
Managers selecting new players as captain
Emerges from a group naturally
Selected by their peers
Peers respect and support them
Leadership characteristics
Status and experience
In :
Come up with your own example of both
Discuss which is the most effective way to select a leader

Four Main Leadership Theories
Trait theory
'Good leaders are born, not made'
Interactional theory
''The effectiveness of an individual's leadership style stems from matching the style to the situation''
(Weinberg 2011)
Developing relationships
Open communication
Maintains social interactions
develops and gains trust
Ensures a feel good factor
Meeting goals and objectives
Setting new goals
Decides on priorities
Assigns members to tasks
Focused on group productivity
Multi-dimensional Model
(Chelladurai, 1990)
Leader Behaviour
1. Situation
2. Leader Characteristics
3. Member Characteristics
(eg Personality, experience, skill/ability, age, gender)
4. Required Behaviour
5. Actual Behaviour
6. Preferred leader
Behaviour of group
7. Performance & Satisfaction
Behavioural theory
People can learn to be good leaders:
Observing the behaviours of other good leaders
Observing how they act in a variety of situation
Attempting to replicate those behaviours in similar situations
Repeating these behaviours if they are reinforced
Leaders are born with leadership characteristics
Personality theories?
Ryan Giggs team-talks were 'Sir Alex-esque
'" -
Robin Van Persie
Take 2 mins to think of your own...
Team's performance and satisfaction at best when leader's required behaviours, preferred behaviours, and actual behaviours all agree
In summary if leader is required to act in a certain way in a certain situation and does so, and team likes the way the leader has acted - higher performance achieved
Fav theory? Most practical applicability?
"don't slip up"
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