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Microstrip Antennas

Some basic information about patch antennas.
by

Rohini Singh

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Microstrip Antennas

The IEEE Standards define the antenna or aerial as “a means for radiating or receiving radio waves.”
vb
An electrical device which converts electric power into radio waves, and vice versa.
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Typically an antenna consists of an arrangement of metallic conductors ("elements"), electrically connected (often through a transmission line) to the receiver or transmitter.
What is an Antenna?
Microstrip Antennas
electrical transmission line 
fabricated using printed circuit board technology
used to convey microwave-frequency signals
consists of a conducting strip separated from a ground plane by a dielectric layer known as the substrate.
Microstrip
Thank You!
Rectangular Microstrip Patch Geometry
Rectangular Microstrip Antennas
Common shapes of patch elements
Narrow bandwidth
Low gain
Poor antenna efficiency
Low power handling capacity
Sensitivity to environmental factors
Disadvantages of Microstrip Antennas
Non-contacting
the power is fed directly
Feed Methods
Typical Applications
Types
of Antennas
Isotropic radiator
Dipole antenna
Random wire antenna
Microstrip antenna
Parabolic antenna
Yagi-Uda antenna
Horn antenna
consists of a radiating patch
conducting material such as copper or gold
What is a Microstrip antenna?
Contacting
Electromagnetic field coupling
MINIATURIZATION
OF PATCH
ANTENNA

Presented by:
UE105084
UE105100
ECE-II

microstrip line
coaxial probe
proximity coupling
aperture coupling
Microstrip Line
Coaxial Feed
Aperture coupling
Proximity coupling
Comparing the different feed techniques
Low-cost fabrication
can even be “conformal”
Easy to feed
Light weight and low volume.
Resistant to shock and vibration
Considerable range of gain and pattern options.
Capable of dual and triple frequency operations
Advantages of Microstrip Antennas
Transmission Line Model
Electric field lines in a transmission line
The Design Specifications
This patch is intended for cell phone applications and hence its frequency of operation was chosen to be 2.42 GHz (GSM frequency band). Its parameters are
fo=2.42GHz
Er=4.2
h=0.8 mm
2. Width
1. Effective Dielectric Constant
3. Effective Length
4. Delta Length
Using the above parameters and the equations of the transmission line model we obtain

W = 41.01 mm
reff = 10.7871
Leff = 49 mm
ΔL = 0.63455 mm
L =47.74 mm

The transmission line model is applicable to infinite ground planes only.
Similar results for finite and infinite ground plane can be obtained if the size of the ground plane is greater than the patch dimensions by approximately six times the substrate thickness all around the periphery. Hence, for this design, the ground plane dimensions would be given as:
Lg=6h+L = 51.34 mm
Wg=6h+W = 44.61 mm
Substrate Materials
What substrate properties are required in antenna applications?
Low Dielectric losses
Low leakage
Low and Uniform dielectric constant
Low Cost
Substrate Materials
Ceramic Substrate-
Mainly used in small size applications with frequencies below 1 GHz
Advantage-
Low loss tangent and has good chemical resistance

Disadvantages-
Expensive
Hard to produce
Drilling for coaxial feed is tough
High dielectric constant
Synthetic substrate-
Commonly made out of organic material like PTFE (Teflon)
Advantage-
Low loss tangent
low dielectric contant

Disadvantages-
Too soft
Handling becomes tough
Composite material substrate
Composite material is made out of mixed chemicals between fiberglass, ceramic or quartz

FR4-
Most widely used
Good quality-to-price ratio
Cost efficient
HFSS (High frequency structural simulator)
HFSS is a commercial finite element solver for electromagnetic structures from ANSOFT corporation
It is one of the commercial tools used for antenna design.
Used to simulate different antenna models
Guided By-
Mr. Jatinder Singh
Mr. Sanjeev

Simulation
Microstrip Patch Antenna
Radiation pattern
Feed Methods
Calculations
Full transcript