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Government under Henry VII
Transcript of Government under Henry VII
The center of all government was the king himself and the men he chose to sit on his council, this was called the kings council. They discussed matters of state and helped administer law and order. Most nobles of the 227 he appointed rarely turned up to his meetings so Henry relied on an elite group to help him in central government;
Government under Henry the 7th
The star chamber was a room in the palace of Westminster which had stars painted on the ceiling.
Here the council met to consider judicial matters, however this did not make it a separate court by right
There were ;
clerics, such as john Morton
Nobles who Henry demanded respect from
and new men who were appointed from the gentry
The council learned in law
This was the infamous and mostly corrupt committee which came about as a small professional committee to defend the kings right as a feudal landlord. this was lead by Empson and Dudley. these two had harsh penalties and they are thought to have manipulated the system for their own needs. they were executed within months of Henry VIII's coronation
Council of the North;
This was situated in York and its primary function was to ensure that good governance of a lawless and undisciplined region was maintained
furthermore it was given responsibility of defence of the northern counties of England
Henry gave this position to the powerful Northen families such as the Percys, therfore he had to relase the earl of northumberland and give him the role.
Government under Henry VII
Government was split into 4 different parts;
sound and stable governance is vital for a nation to properly function, Henry wanted to re-establish law and order after the wars of the roses.
The star chamber
Wales and Ireland
consisted of the pricipality and the marcher lordships, traditionally lorded over by the kings eldest son.
Henry appointed Jasper tudor to govern wales and his old friend Rhys ap Thomas governed the south west
Poynings law was arranged- irish parliaments could be called and pass laws only with the prior approval of the king.
most of Ireland lacked proper governence throughout his reign
Local government was carried out in each of the 50 counties by anumber of officials who were directly responsible to the king. the king communicated with them with writs. The two most important people in local government were justices of the Peace and Sheriffs.
appointed annually from the local landowners
closest thing to a police officer
had their own court and enforced law
Justices of the Peace (JP's)
JP's were also appointed anually from among local landowners. average number of 18 per county
JP's were responsible for;
Defence of public order
Implementing statutes of various social and economic means
Dispensing justice to criminals brought before them by the Sheriffs
The position of a JP was unpayed work and it was seen as a natural part of lawndowners job to ensure the peace was kept
Problems faced in local Gov't
The most frequent problems were disputes between nobles which was very apparent during the wars of the roses where the Government system effectively collapsed.
Henry's main problem was restraining and controlling the magnates. He went about doing this by limiting their power and making them swear their loyaltty too him. To make sure of this he used financial constraints such as bonds and recognisances.
Henry rewarded magnates for good loyalty such as Jasper tudor, who became the most influential noble in Wales. While supporters of Richard III found it near impossible to regain their titles they enjoyed under the Yorkists
Centralisation of Government
Supervision of all government was extremely important. Henry made himself the central figure of all directional operations from London. he did this in 3 ways;
Exploitation of crown lands and acts of attainder
Encouraging frequent use of royal council and local lawsuits
Increasing powers of JP's
Henrys increased reach and control of the country had increased royal authority and more importantly royal income through rents using JP's
His increased power of localities made sure that they never had enough power to build up a small uprising or rebellion and endanger his throne
Parliament under Henry
Parliament had a limited role in Henry's reign, this is made obvious by the statistic of parliament only ever meeting on 7 occasions in 24 years
it didn't meet often because Henry didn't ask for war taxes often or grants, plus he didn't want to strain the loyalty of his subjects.
parliament wasn't an appeal court due to this happening in the court of appeal.
Parliament was still used to pass laws against riots and retaining so it was not completely neglected during Henry's reign