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The Pidginization Hypothesis

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Hiraya Haraya

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of The Pidginization Hypothesis

Schumann's Pidginization Hypothesis
The Case Study
Subject: Alberto, a 33-year old Costa Rican
Objective: To determine the causes of Alberto''s minimal linguistic growth
Duration of study: 10 months

- a simplified and reduced form of speech used for communication between people with different languages
- is characterized by a tendency to eliminate grammatical transformations.

Social factors
Psychological factors
language shock
-learner experiences doubts ("Do my words express my ideas?")
-learner interprets L2 words differently than L1 speakers do
-narcissistic gratification is lost with L2
-self-doubts/apprehensions on language skills
Factors Affecting Restriction in Function
acceptance/ refusal to be part of the Tl (target language) community/ L2 speakers
social distance is directly proportional to difficulty in language acquistion
social distance creates an unideal language situation

cultural/political/economic inferiority
inability to assimilate/adapt to L2 culture
enclosure (homogeneous communities/ social institutions
cohesiveness of L1 group
differences between L1 &L2 culture
attitudes-ethnic stereotypes
length of residence
Three functions of language
communicative-transmission of information.; characterizes pidgin language
integrative- L2 acquisition allows speaker to be accepted in TL community
expressive- L2 skills allow him to be a valuable/esteemed member of TL community
culture shock- anxiety, stress resulting from the inability to deal with routine situations in L2 society
motivation - the motivated learner seeks/ maximizes interaction with TL speakers
ego permeability - the ability to give up separateness of identity helps in learning
Note: Subject of study (Alberto) worked and lived with people in the same culture, and limited his interaction with people in his community.
L2 instruction wasn't powerful enough to overcome pidginization posed by social and psychological barriers.
Alberto felt that his pidginized speech was adequate for his needs thus making L2 instruction unecessary for him.
Case in Point

Pidginization in L2 learners will persist where social and psychological distance prevails.
Second language acquisition explained
Bibliography: Schumann, John H. "Second Language Acquisition: The Pidginization Hypothesis" Language Learning. 26 (1976): 391-408.JohnHSchumann . www.humnet.ucla.edu. 19, October 2013.

Social distance
His learning objective was limited to the communicative function of L2.
"I no work on Sunday."
" You no have soap?"
"He no like it."
"He don't like"
Pidgin language is restricted to the first function.
Alberto was given extensive English instruction for a seven-month period.
Result: He performed better in controlled production than in free production.
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